Centre Georges Pompidou-Metz, France
The "Centre Pompidou-Metz" arts and cultural center in France is a branch of the "Centre Georges Pompidou" museum of modern and contemporary arts in Paris, one of the most significant museums worldwide.
Structural Timber Design
SJB.Kempter.Fitze AG, Eschenbach, Germany
Demathieu & Bard
Holzbau Amann GmbH, Weilheim-Bannholz, Germany
Shigeru Ban Architects Europe
Jean de Gastines Architectes
Metz Métropole, France
The building was designed by Shigeru Ban, a Japanese architect, and represents an oversized Chinese straw hat (external dimensions: 328 ft x 328 ft), where the girders symbolize the straw plaited in three directions, dividing the surface into regular hexagons and triangles.
The hat is pierced by three big tubes, consisting of reinforced concrete, stacked on top of each other. The top of the hat is crowned by a hexagonal steel tower.
The roof structure is made of timber beams and consists of intersecting multi‑layer chords. The curved glued laminated beams are connected by prestressed threaded bars and disk springs at the points of intersection. In this way, the structural transmission of forces in the joints is ensured by friction.
The parallel running chords are connected to each other by plywood panels and screw threads. Thus, they have the effect of a Vierendeel truss with semi‑rigid connections.
Structural Analysis and Design
The complex system, with approximately 41,000 members, was designed by the Swiss company SJB.Kempter.Fitze, using RSTAB and the TIMBER, DYNAM, and RSBUCK add‑on modules.
The entire supporting structure, made of steel and reinforced concrete, was designed by means of a "simplified" system in order to take into appropriate account the effects resulting from mutual dependency. To calculate the internal forces in the connections and structural components, each cord and shear plate as well as the joint sections had to be modeled with the respective spatial orientation.
The load situations were determined by CSTB (Centre scientifique et technique du bâtiment) in a comprehensive wind tunnel analysis. In addition to the self‑weight, temperature, and live loads, the calculation included 96 wind load cases, 80 snow load cases, and the resulting membrane loads.
Finally, the 3D FEA software RFEM was used to model and design 216 connections between the wooden and steel structures.
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The effects due to snow load are described in the American standard ASCE/SEI 7-16 and in Eurocode 1, Parts 1 through 3. These standards are implemented in the new RFEM 6 program and the Snow Load Wizard, which serves to facilitate the application of snow loads. In addition to this, the most recent generation of the program allows the construction site to be specified on a digital map, thus allowing the snow load zone to be imported automatically. These data are, in turn, used by the Load Wizard to simulate the effects due to the snow load.
Compared to the RF‑/TIMBER Pro add-on module (RFEM 5 / RSTAB 8), the following new features have been added to the Timber Design add-on for RFEM 6 / RSTAB 9:
- In addition to Eurocode 5, other international standards are integrated (SIA 265, ANSI/AWC NDS, CSA 086, GB 50005)
- Design of compression perpendicular to grain (support pressure)
- Implementation of eigenvalue solver for determining the critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling (EC 5 only)
- Definition of different effective lengths for design at normal temperature and fire resistance design
- Evaluation of stresses via unit stresses (FEA)
- Optimized stability analyses for tapered members
- Unification of the materials for all national annexes (only one "EN" standard is now available in the material library for a better overview)
- Display of cross-section weakenings directly in the rendering
- Output of the used design check formulas (including a reference to the used equation from the standard)
- How can I neglect torsion in the steel and timber design?
- How do I perform stability analysis to determine the critical load factor in RFEM 6?
- Where can I find the materials for the corresponding National Annexes in RFEM 6 and RSTAB 9?
- How does the "Orthotropic Plastic" material model work in RFEM?
- What is the meaning of the superposition according to the CQC rule in a dynamic analysis??
- Can I use RFEM to calculate a log house three-dimensionally?
- How do I display some results of all load cases in the printout report, but other results of the selected load cases only?
- Can I design laminated veneer lumber with RFEM/RSTAB?
- I would like to carry out the flexural buckling design for timber components with imperfections and internal forces according to the second-order analysis. Is it sufficient to activate this in Details of the RF‑/TIMBER Pro add-on module or is it necessary to make additional settings?
- How can I calculate a timber-concrete composite floor with cross-laminated timber?
Programs Used for Structural Analysis
The structural engineering software for design of frame, beam and truss structures, performing linear and nonlinear calculations of internal forces, deformations, and support reactions
Structural engineering software for finite element analysis (FEA) of planar and spatial structural systems consisting of plates, walls, shells, members (beams), solids and contact elements
Timber design according to Eurocode 5, SIA 265 and/or DIN 1052
Stability analysis according to the eigenvalue method
Dynamic analysis of natural frequencies and mode shapes of member models
Dynamic and seismic analysis including time history analysis and multi-modal response spectrum analysis
Seismic and static load analysis using the multi-modal response spectrum analysis