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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
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AnswerThe design points in CRANEWAY have been adopted in compliance with the standard. In this case, the stresses are calculated for the following locations:
These points are not displayed in the resulting cross-section graphic in the CRANEWAY program. However, there is always a stress point at the design points 0 and 2 for which the result values can be directly displayed.
- Design Point 0
A periphery of the flange at the web edge or at the fillet start
- Design Point 1
A flange at load application point (this can be checked as wheel spacing in Window 1.4)
- Design Point 2
The flange edge
- Design Point 0
AnswerIn the CRANEWAY program, you can select the display of load combinations for the individual design situations in the middle of Window 1.5 Load Combinations.
To do this, select the checkbox in Column J in Window 1.2 Geometry (see Figure 01).Then, it is possible to view the release definitions in the "Releases" tab (see Figure 02).If you want to modify the releases, you have to set the "User-Defined" support type in the "Support" tab. Then, you can freely define the releases (see Figure 03).
Yes, it is; the RWIND Simulation program is designed universally and can implement any model of RFEM or RSTAB.
Figure 03 - RFEM Model
For a steel structure consisting of pure member elements, the program creates a coherent, voluminous envelope of member surfaces for the numerical wind tunnel. The result of this modeling for the simulation depends on the available cross-sections and the mesh settings. Due to the wind flow, the corresponding surface pressures result on this surface layer.
Figure 02 - Surface Pressure on OpenFOAM Mesh
After the wind flow analysis, the program summarizes the surface pressures of the member units, and gives back the corresponding equivalent load (single, uniform, or trapezoidal) for each member axis.
Figure 04 - Options for Member Load Distribution
These loads are applied in RFEM or RSTAB for the further calculation of internal forces.
Figure 05 - Equivalent Load from RWIND Simulation
The "Simulate and Generate Wind Loads" interface application allows you to exchange member, surface, and solid elements in RFEM, and member elements in RSTAB.
To avoid too fine mesh and thus too long calculation time, the program simulates all members with a rectangular cross-section by default. In this case, the size of the rectangular cross-section is selected in such a way that it barely includes the real cross-section geometry.
By deactivating the "Export optimized member topology" option, you can avoid this additional optimization of the model and allow consideration of the real cross-section geometry within the existing cross-section settings.
If the exact display of the cross-section geometry requires more than 1,000,000 elements, the interface automatically switches to the simplified rectangular cross-section display.
AnswerThe internal forces and deformations are determined according to the second-order analysis for torsional buckling, taking into account 7 degrees of freedom. For a linear calculation of deformations, a vertical/horizontal load only results in one vertical/horizontal deformation. Since the internal forces refer to the deformed structure and there is a nonlinear analysis, this is not valid for the second-order torsional buckling analysis.
In RFEM and RSTAB, you can check the deformations in the shear center by using the RF‑/FE‑LTB add-on module (see Figure 02). The deformations that additionally result from the displacements or rotations can only be checked with a surface model in RFEM.
You can control the detail categories in Window "1.3 Cross-Section" and in the "Edit Detail Categories" dialog box.The specified standard values can be selected here. Unfortunately, it is not possible to manually adjust these values.
AnswerIn CRANEWAY, the internal forces are usually displayed for the max and min locations only. If you want to obtain all internal forces on all x-locations, you have to run a detailed calculation and to disable the "Show only governing results" option. The short video shows how to do it.
AnswerIf the stiffeners are welded into the crane runway, it is necessary to consider the corresponding detail category for the fatigue design in compliance with EN 1993‑1‑9, Table 8.4, Detail 7. This is implemented in CRANEWAY by creating additional stress points at the connection point of the stiffeners to the cross-section. They can be adjusted manually in the settings for the detail categories, depending on the stiffener geometry.During the fatigue design of the craneway girder, the design of the axial stress range is additionally performed in the newly created stress points for the x‑locations where is the stiffener.
AnswerIn the case of long crane runways and many cranes, the large number of load combinations can lead to a long calculation time. The following settings affect the calculation time significantly:
Calculation Method for Determining Internal Forces
The fast calculation type may therefore be useful for preliminary design.
- Fast calculation (a calculation of all load combinations according to the linear static analysis, then a calculation of the governing load combinations according to the second-order torsional buckling analysis)
- Detailed calculation (a calculation of all load combinations according to the second-order torsional buckling analysis)
Maximum Target Length of Finite ElementsThe maximum length of the finite elements generated for the calculation according to the second-order torsional buckling analysis can be entered within the range of 100 mm to 2,500 mm. The calculation time can be increased significantly by the finer division of finite elements.Thus, you should select a reasonable length of the finite elements for an optimized calculation time, depending on the structural system. Usually, 8 elements for each girder span are enough to calculate the deformations with a deviation of less than 5% with regard to a precise solution.
Number of Load CombinationsYou can use a reasonable setting of the load increment to control the number of generated load combinations. When entering the load increment, the generated number of crane load positions and load combinations is already displayed in a preview. A small load increment may result in many load combinations that take more time in the calculation accordingly.
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Wind Simulation & Wind Load Generation
With the stand-alone program RWIND Simulation, wind flows around simple or complex structures can be simulated by means of a digital wind tunnel.
The generated wind loads acting on these objects can be imported to RFEM or RSTAB.
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