#### Further Information

In addition to our technical support (e.g. via chat), you’ll find resources on our website that may help you with your design using Dlubal Software.

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• ### Which formula is used in the RF‑/TOWER Loading add-on module to calculate the first natural frequency for the determination of the structure coefficient?

The first natural frequency is required to determine the structure coefficient. It is not determined by using a generalized formula, but the integrated eigenvalue solver RF‑/DYNAM, taking into account the real mass distribution and displaying the results in Column A of Table 2.3.

• ### Is it possible to control the beam steering of an antenna in RF‑/TOWER Design?

Beam steering is the angular rotation of antennas under the effect of the present loads (wind, overload, earthquake, deformation, and so on). As an indication, for the GSM, the value of the beam steering must not exceed 1°. This limit of beam steering is often accessible in the clauses of the Technical Specifications of the project.
In RF‑/TOWER Design, it is possible to control the beam steering of antennas for the SLS design. To activate this rotation design of antennas, go to DetailsServiceability.

As soon as you select this check box, the antennas are available in Window 1.10.2 Serviceability of Antennas. Here, you can enter the angular rotation limit of each antenna.

After the calculation, the maximum ratio is displayed in Window 2.7 Design by Antenna.

A user-defined wind load distribution is not provided in the Eurocode. In order to implement a user-defined wind load distribution in the RF‑/TOWER Loading add-on module, this can only be done after conversion to DIN, for example, DIN 4131:1993‑11, see Figure 01, Window "1.3 Wind Load - Part 1."

Then, you can select the user-defined distribution in Window 1.4 "Wind Load - Part 2," and define it in the adjacent table, see Figure 02.

• ### Is it possible to use Dlubal Software for the calculation and design of 5G transmission masts, antenna masts, or towers?

The structural engineering software RFEM or RSTAB is very well suited to perform such designs. The add-on modules for steel or concrete structures support your individual solution approaches.

Special add-on modules from the RF‑/TOWER series extend and simplify the options.

###### Main Programs RFEM or RSTAB
The main programs are used to define structures and materials as well as actions.

RSTAB allows you to edit and analyze beam, frame, or truss structures. RFEM also provides plate, wall, shell, and solid elements.

RF-/TOWER Structure
helps to perform efficient generation of three- or four-sided tower structures.

RF-/TOWER Equipment
includes a comprehensive library with tower equipment and allows for a quick and easy integration into your model.

provides you with professional support when generating wind, ice and traffic loads.

RF-/TOWER Effective Lengths
determines the effective lengths of members that are specific for towers.

RF-/TOWER Design
performs design according to EN 1993‑,1‑1, EN 1993‑3‑1, and EN 50341, including NA.

RF-/JOINTS Steel Tower
designs nominally pinned bolted connections used in lattice towers according to EN 1993‑1‑8.

###### Wind Analysis in Digital Wind Tunnel
Use RWIND Simulation for advanced analysis of wind flow behavior. The results can be used directly as loads or load cases in RFEM or RSTAB.

###### Dynamic Analysis
If it is necessary to perform seismic analysis or vibration designs, the RF‑/DYNAM Pro add-on modules provide special tools for determining natural frequencies and mode shapes, an analysis of forced vibrations, a generation of equivalent loads, or for a nonlinear time history analysis.

If you have any question about the Dlubal Software programs, please do not hesitate to contact our sales department.
• ### Is it also possible to simulate an external steel structure in RWIND Simulation?

Yes, it is; the RWIND Simulation program is designed universally and can implement any model of RFEM or RSTAB.

For a steel structure consisting of pure member elements, the program creates a coherent, voluminous envelope of member surfaces for the numerical wind tunnel. The result of this modeling for the simulation depends on the available cross-sections and the mesh settings. Due to the wind flow, the corresponding surface pressures result on this surface layer.

After the wind flow analysis, the program summarizes the surface pressures of the member units, and gives back the corresponding equivalent load (single, uniform, or trapezoidal) for each member axis.

These loads are applied in RFEM or RSTAB for the further calculation of internal forces.

• ### How is it possible to consider the real cross-section geometry of member elements in RWIND Simulation?

The "Simulate and Generate Wind Loads" interface application allows you to exchange member, surface, and solid elements in RFEM, and member elements in RSTAB.

To avoid too fine mesh and thus too long calculation time, the program simulates all members with a rectangular cross-section by default. In this case, the size of the rectangular cross-section is selected in such a way that it barely includes the real cross-section geometry.

By deactivating the "Export optimized member topology" option, you can avoid this additional optimization of the model and allow consideration of the real cross-section geometry within the existing cross-section settings.

If the exact display of the cross-section geometry requires more than 1,000,000 elements, the interface automatically switches to the simplified rectangular cross-section display.

• ### Is it possible to design a "Kármán vortex street" behind an object in the numerical wind tunnel of RWIND Simulation?

In the RWIND Simulation program, a stationary flow analysis of incompressible gases is implemented. The principles and formulations used for this do not change over time. Thus, the calculation gives a result set without temporal variation.

[1] The effect of a "Kármán vortex street," in which counter-rotating vortices develop behind a body around which flows, results in a temporal change of the flow effect. Therefore, this fluid-mechanical effect cannot be simulated in RWIND Simulation.

• ### The upper and lower flanges have to be joined by a column, but there are the verticals and diagonals connected to the flanges.How do I arrange the hinges?

If the flanges are not continuous and the diagonals are fastened to the flanges, it may be necessary to enter an intermediate member.

Figure 1 shows a structural system where the flange is not continuous, but the diagonals are rigidly connected to the flange. To transfer the moments of the diagonals to the flange, the diagonal must get to the flange before the joint, otherwise the moment of the diagonal will be transferred to the opposite member (see Figure 02).

In the case the diagonals are also connected by hinges, you can waive the intermediate member. Please note that at least one member will not be hinged in order to prevent the connection node to rotate freely (see Figure 03).

If using a vertical, this must be connected on one of the two flanges or be between both flanges. In both cases, the model from Figure 1 arises, and has to be modified accordingly. Figure 04 shows the model with the vertical between the flanges and Figure 05 shows the model with the vertical on the right flange.

• ### Is it possible in RF‑/TOWER Loading to display the intermediate steps for determining the wind load, such as the fullness coefficient?

In the result tables of the add-on module, you can find all intermediate values for each wind direction, face and sector. This feature is also available in the long version of the printout report, though it can significantly increase the size of the report.
• ### When calculating a cable using the STEEL EC3 add‑on module, he error message "Incorrect characteristic stresses for material No. 1! Please correct this in Table 1.2." appears.

For the "Cable..." material, there are no entries for yield strength and tension resistance stored in the library (see Figure 02). Therefore, the calculation basis for these members is missing in the add-on module. In order to be able to design such materials, it is necessary to create a new material and, provided that the information from the manufacturer is known, add the missing parameters manually.

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If not, contact us via our free e-mail, chat, or forum support, or send us your question via the online form.

#### First Steps

We provide hints and tips to help you get started with the main programs RFEM and RSTAB.

#### Wind Simulation & Wind Load Generation

With the stand-alone program RWIND Simulation, wind flows around simple or complex structures can be simulated by means of a digital wind tunnel.

The generated wind loads acting on these objects can be imported to RFEM or RSTAB.

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