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Why Dlubal Software?
Wind Simulation & Wind Load Generation
With the stand-alone program RWIND Simulation, wind flows around simple or complex structures can be simulated by means of a digital wind tunnel.
The generated wind loads acting on these objects can be imported to RFEM or RSTAB.
Annexes are often found on buildings. If the roof levels are not at the same depth, this elevation jump (if more than 0.5 m) must additionally be considered for the snow load assumption.
The ASCE 7-16 standard requires both balanced and unbalanced snow load case scenarios for a structure's design consideration. While this may be more intuitive for flat or even gable/hip type roofs, the determination of snow loads is increasingly more difficult for arch roofs due to complex geometry. However, with guidance from the ASCE 7-16 on snow load calculations for curved roofs and RFEM's efficient load application tools, it's possible to consider both balanced and unbalanced snow loads for a reliable and safe structure design.
As gravity loads act on a structure, lateral displacement occurs. In turn, a secondary overturning moment is generated as the gravity load continues to act on the elements in the laterally displaced position. This effect is also known as "P-Delta (Δ)." Sect. 22.214.171.124 of the ASCE 7-16 Standard and the NBC 2015 Commentary specify when P-Delta effects should be considered during a modal response spectrum analysis.
The wind, which blows parallel to the surfaces of a structure, can generate friction forces on these surfaces. This effect is mainly important for very large structures.
DIN EN 1998-1 with the National Annex DIN EN 1998-1/NA specifies how to determine seismic loads. The standard applies to structural engineering in seismic areas.
For crane runways with large spans, the horizontal load from skewing is often relevant for the design. This article describes the origin of these forces and the correct input in CRANEWAY. The practical implementation and the theoretical background are discussed.
The wind loads are regulated according to Eurocode 1 - Actions on structures - part 1-4: General actions - Wind loads. The nationally determined parameters of a respective country can be found in the National Annexes.
To correctly model and calculate floating bodies (special rafts, pontoons, floating jetties, dredgers, floating houses, inflatable islands, floating cranes, houseboats, et cetera), a two-stage calculation is necessary.
In addition to determine loads, there are some particularities concerning the load combinatorics in timber design which have to be considered. Contrary to steel structures where the largest loading results from all unfavorable actions, in timber construction, the strength values are dependent on the load duration and the timber humidity. Special characteristics have to be considered as well for the serviceability limit state design. The following article discusses the effects on the design of wooden elements and how this is possible with RSTAB and RFEM.
In Germany, DIN EN 1991-1-4 with the National Annex DIN EN 1991-1-4/NA regulates the wind loads. The standard applies to civil engineering works up to an altitude of 300 m.
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