# Knowledge Base

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1. ## Wind Force Due to Friction

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The wind, which blows parallel to the surfaces of a structure, can generate friction forces on these surfaces. This effect is mainly important for very large structures.

2. ## Seismic Loads on Buildings in Germany

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DIN EN 1998-1 with the National Annex DIN EN 1998-1/NA specifies how to determine seismic loads. The standard applies to structural engineering in seismic areas.

3. ## Horizontal Craneway Loads from Skewing of Bridge Cranes

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For crane runways with large spans, the horizontal load from skewing is often relevant for the design. This article describes the origin of these forces and the correct input in CRANEWAY. The practical implementation and the theoretical background are discussed.

4. ## Wind Depending on the Structure Height for Vertical Walls

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The wind loads are regulated according to Eurocode 1 - Actions on structures - part 1-4: General actions - Wind loads. The nationally determined parameters of a respective country can be found in the National Annexes.

5. ## Modeling and Calculating a Floating Body with RFEM

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To correctly model and calculate floating bodies (special rafts, pontoons, floating jetties, dredgers, floating houses, inflatable islands, floating cranes, houseboats, et cetera), a two-stage calculation is necessary.

6. ## Load Combinations in Timber Structures for European and American Timber Standards

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In addition to determine loads, there are some particularities concerning the load combinatorics in timber design which have to be considered. Contrary to steel structures where the largest loading results from all unfavorable actions, in timber construction, the strength values are dependent on the load duration and the timber humidity. Special characteristics have to be considered as well for the serviceability limit state design. The following article discusses the effects on the design of wooden elements and how this is possible with RSTAB and RFEM.

7. ## Wind Load on Monopitch and Duopitch Roofs in Germany

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In Germany, DIN EN 1991-1-4 with the National Annex DIN EN 1991-1-4/NA regulates the wind loads. The standard applies to civil engineering works up to an altitude of 300 m.
8. ## Wind Loads on Circular Dome Roof Structures According to ASCE 7-16

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When it comes to wind loads on building type structures per the ASCE 7, numerous resources can be found to supplement design standards and aid engineers with this lateral load application.  However, engineers may find it more difficult to find similar resources for wind loading on non-building type structures.  This article will examine the steps to calculate and apply wind loads per the ASCE 7-16 on a circular reinforced concrete tank with a dome roof.
9. ## Determination of Wind Loads for Canopy Roof Structures According to EN 1991-1-4

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If a canopy roof, for example a filling station roof, should be designed, a load determination having regard to Section 7.3 of EN 1991-1-4 is required. This article shows with an example the design of a slightly inclined troughed roof.
10. ## Snow Load on Monopitch and Duopitch Roofs

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In Germany, DIN EN 1991-1-3 with the National Annex DIN EN 1991-1-3/NA regulates the snow loads. The standard applies to civil engineering works at an altitude of up to 1,500 m above sea level.

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