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Wind Simulation & Wind Load Generation
With the stand-alone program RWIND Simulation, wind flows around simple or complex structures can be simulated by means of a digital wind tunnel.
The generated wind loads acting on these objects can be imported to RFEM or RSTAB.
Due to the special properties of glass, you also have to pay close attention to detail points when modeling in an FE model. Glass has a very high compressive strength and is therefore generally only designed for its tensile stresses. A particular disadvantage of the material is its brittleness. Stress peaks that occur in the calculation must therefore not be readily neglected.
The proportion of glass when planning a building is increasing. Open, light-flooded buildings represent the modern art of architecture. However, specialized engineers have to face new challenges during their planning. Such an example are ceiling-high glass facades which are loaded by a handrail at the same time. The influence of this loading as well as the calculation of the deformation are shown in this article.
Loading panes of insulating glass due to climatic effects are clearly regulated in DIN 18008. In the case of the corresponding pane geometry, this load type can also be governing for the ultimate limit state design. The FE design on the entire structure with the space between panes represented as the volume of a gas provides exact results for the analysis. However, a plausibility check is also becoming more and more important. This article shows various options of how to perform these checks.
Design of insulating glass panes has special requirement on the load application point of the loading. For example, wind loads and loads due to fall protection may appear. For this, the wind load should be applied on the external glass side and the handrail load should act on the internal glass pane.
As mentioned in Part 1 of the article, according to the current standard DIN 18008-3, it is permissible in glass construction to display point supports for glass components by means of FEM in order to design the adequate ultimate limit state. The rules for the procedure can be found in Annex B of the standard .
According to DIN 18008-1 clause 8.3.6, a design value of the load-bearing resistance differentiated from other glasses may be applied as follows:
R_d = (k_c x f_k)/Gamma_M
Click the [Details] button in RF‑GLASS to select the results to be displayed. In order to get a better overview for the result evaluation, you can select the individual stress graphics - principal stresses, stresses oriented to axes, shear stresses - as well as various result windows. In this way, you can show only the results that you require.
The transparency of glass material should not be missing in any building. In addition to the typical application areas such as windows, this building material is being increasingly used for facades, canopies, or even as a bracing for stairways. Of course, the planning architects often set a very high standard of transparency on fixation of the glass panes. This requires special glass fittings that couple the glass panes.
For superposition or combination of loads, the German standard DIN 18008 refers to DIN 1055‑100. This also applies for the individual parameters of climatic loads to be transferred. In this case, it is possible to summarize the temperature change and meteorological pressure change in a single load and to define the local altitude change as a permanent load.
When designing panes of insulating glass, there is a new feature which allows you to assign climatic loads to load cases. Climatic loads are included in three categories here: temperature difference, atmospheric pressure difference, and altitude difference.
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