# Knowledge Base

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1. ## Calculating Timber Panel Walls | 1. Determining the Ultimate Limit State and Stiffness

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The stiffening of timber structures is usually carried out by means of timber panels. For this purpose, structural components consisting of slabs (chipboards, OSB) are connected with members. Several articles will describe the basics of this construction method and the calculation in the RFEM program. This first article describes the basic determination of the stiffnesses as well as the calculation.

2. ## Load Combinations in Timber Structures for European and American Timber Standards

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In addition to determine loads, there are some particularities concerning the load combinatorics in timber design which have to be considered. Contrary to steel structures where the largest loading results from all unfavorable actions, in timber construction, the strength values are dependent on the load duration and the timber humidity. Special characteristics have to be considered as well for the serviceability limit state design. The following article discusses the effects on the design of wooden elements and how this is possible with RSTAB and RFEM.

3. ## Modeling of Semi-Rigid Composite Beam Made of Timber as Surface Model

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There are several options to calculate a semi-rigid composite beam. They differ primarily in the type of modeling. Whereas the Gamma method ensures a simple modeling, additional efforts are required when using other methods (e.g. shear analogy) for the modeling which are, however, offset by the much more flexible application compared to the Gamma method.
4. ## Design of Curved Glulam Beams According to ANSI/AWC NDS

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RFEM offers the possibility to model also curved beams. To do this, a curved line must be created first (see Figure 01).This line can then be assigned a beam with a cross-section. The advantages over modeling with beam segments are the easier handling during the modeling as well as the clearer results output of the internal forces.

5. ## Design of Notches and Cross-Section Reductions in Timber Add-on Modules

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As of the program version X.06 of the add‑on modules RF‑/TIMBER Pro, RF‑/TIMBER AWC and RF‑/TIMBER CSA, it is possible to consider notches and cross‑section reductions in the design. The procedure is as follows.

6. ## SLS Checks Taking into Account Resulting Deformation

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In the add‑on modules RF‑/TIMBER Pro, RF‑/TIMBER AWC, and RF‑/TIMBER CSA, you can now take into account the resulting deformation of a member or set of members. In addition to the local directions y and z, you also have the option “R.” This allows you to compare the total deflection of a girder to the limit values given in the standards.

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