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Wind Simulation & Wind Load Generation
With the stand-alone program RWIND Simulation, wind flows around simple or complex structures can be simulated by means of a digital wind tunnel.
The generated wind loads acting on these objects can be imported to RFEM or RSTAB.
The calculation of timber panels is carried out on simplified member or surface structures. This article describes how to determine the required stiffness.
The fundamental requirements of a structural system are, according to the basis of structural design, sufficient ultimate limit state, serviceability and resistance. Structures must be designed in such a way that no damage occurs due to events such as the impact of a vehicle.
The stiffening of timber structures is usually carried out by means of timber panels. For this purpose, structural components consisting of slabs (chipboards, OSB) are connected with members. Several articles will describe the basics of this construction method and the calculation in the RFEM program. This first article describes the basic determination of the stiffnesses as well as the calculation.
In addition to determine loads, there are some particularities concerning the load combinatorics in timber design which have to be considered. Contrary to steel structures where the largest loading results from all unfavorable actions, in timber construction, the strength values are dependent on the load duration and the timber humidity. Special characteristics have to be considered as well for the serviceability limit state design. The following article discusses the effects on the design of wooden elements and how this is possible with RSTAB and RFEM.
There are several options to calculate a semi-rigid composite beam. They differ primarily in the type of modeling. Whereas the Gamma method ensures a simple modeling, additional efforts are required when using other methods (e.g. shear analogy) for the modeling which are, however, offset by the much more flexible application compared to the Gamma method.
Stability Analysis of Two-Dimensional Structural Components on Example of Cross-Laminated Timber Wall 2
The following article describes design using the equivalent member method according to  Section 6.3.2, performed on the example of cross-laminated timber wall susceptible to buckling described in Part 1 of this article series. The buckling analysis will be performed as a compressive stress analysis with reduced compressive strength. For this, the instability factor kc is determined, which depends primarily on the component slenderness and the support type.
In RF-/TIMBER Pro, it is now also possible to perform the vibration analysis known from DIN 1052 for the design according to EN 1995-1-1. This states that under permanent and quasi-permanent action, the deflection on the ideal single-span beam must not exceed a limit value (according to DIN 1052 6 mm). If you consider the relation between natural frequency and deflection shown in the graphic for a hinged single-span beam loaded with a constant linear load, the 6 mm results in a minimum natural frequency of about 7.2 Hz. Taking into account the fact that a minimum natural frequency of 8.00 Hz is to be considered in most National Application Documents of EC 5, the maximum deflection of approximately 5 mm is obtained for the aforementioned system. If the structural system deviates from a hinged single-span beam (for example continuous beams, cantilevers, restraints), this must be taken into account for the deflection limitation.
For wide-span ceilings, the vibration design of cross‑laminated timber plates is often governing. The advantage of the lighter material of timber over concrete turns into a disadvantage because a high mass material is advantageous for a low natural frequency.
As of the program version X.06 of the add‑on modules RF‑/TIMBER Pro, RF‑/TIMBER AWC and RF‑/TIMBER CSA, it is possible to consider notches and cross‑section reductions in the design. The procedure is as follows.
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