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DIN EN 1998-1 with the National Annex DIN EN 1998-1/NA specifies how to determine seismic loads. The standard applies to structural engineering in seismic areas.
In Germany, DIN EN 1991-1-4 with the National Annex DIN EN 1991-1-4/NA regulates the wind loads. The standard applies to civil engineering works up to an altitude of 300 m.
In Germany, DIN EN 1991-1-3 with the National Annex DIN EN 1991-1-3/NA regulates the snow loads. The standard applies to civil engineering works at an altitude of up to 1,500 m above sea level.
In theory, an ideal gas consists of freely moving mass particles without extension in a volume space. In this space, each particle moves at a speed in one direction. The collision of one particle with another particle or the volume limitations lead to a deflection and a change in the speed of the particles.
Cable and tensile membrane structures are regarded as very slender and aesthetic building constructions. The partly very complex double-curved shapes can be found using suitable form-finding algorithms. A possible solution is, for example, to search the form via the equilibrium between the surface stress (provided prestress and an additional load such as self-weight, pressure, etc.) and the given boundary conditions.
In RFEM, structures can be modelled and analysed in a spatial environment. The permanent 3D visualization helps to better understand complex models and to represent the force flux. However, it is also possible to switch from a spatial mode to a planar sheet mode in the documentation of a calculation. For this, you have to describe the spatial calculation of the structure with all the necessary properties on ‘flat’ paper pages for an independent reader. Usually, you try to display the load actions and the corresponding results by using an orthogonal view of the substructure of the entire structure. Obviously, the load symbols depicted in the 3D mode in a view perpendicular to the load become unrecognizable due the missing expansion. In order to still be able to create a clear representation of all information, the corresponding adjustments are available in RFEM.
If a bending load of a brittle beam element (an unreinforced concrete beam) is increased by means of the bending capacity, the structure responds by breaking the cross-section, and the member is separated into two segments. At the time of the failure, the broken part suddenly loses its potential to transfer the bending moment. Due to the segmentation, the critical part also fails to transfer the other force types, such as axial forces.
This paper is focused on the specific aspects of designing membrane structures. These structures have specific requirements such as form-finding and cutting patterns generation. These topics are the focus of many research works and there are many methods proposed to achieve the desired results. However in this paper these issues will be discussed more from the practical point of view than from the theoretical one. The paper will be followed by examples, which will complement the discussed topic and show the special attention required during the design process.
This article explains how to determine loads on the basis of the internal force situations defined in the RF-/STEEL Warping Torsion extension of the RF-/STEEL EC3 add-on module. Since this new program allows you to also analyze extracted chain-like beam structures in addition to entire chain-like beam structures, it is necessary to determine the loads of the partial structure separately. For this, a special transformation function has been developed, which determines new loads of all partial structures (depending on the internal forces calculated in RFEM/RSTAB) according to each load situation for geometrically nonlinear warping torsion analysis with seven degrees of freedom.
Some compound beam structures such as stacked containers or retracted telescopic bars transfer the forces in the connection between the components by friction. The load bearing capacity of such a connection depends on the effective axial force perpendicular to the friction plane and on the friction coefficients between both friction surfaces. For example, the more the friction surfaces are compressed, the more horizontal shear force can be transferred by the friction surfaces (static friction).
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