# Knowledge Base

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1. ## Comparing Critical Load Factors for Lateral-Torsional Buckling According to Different Methods and Modules

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The critical factor for lateral-torsional buckling or the critical buckling moment of a single-span beam will be compared according to different stability analysis methods.
2. ## Warping Torsion Analysis According to AISC Design Guide 9

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The design of a torsional loaded beam according to AISC Design Guide 9 will be shown based on a verification example. The design will be performed with the RF-STEEL AISC add-on module and the RF-STEEL Warping Torsion module extension with 7 degrees of freedom.
3. ## Consideration of Holes in Tension Design

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For the tension design according to Clause 6.2.3 EN 1993-1-1, the following formulas are given to determine the tension resistance.

$\begin{array}{l}\mathrm{Equation}\;6.6:\;{\mathrm N}_{\mathrm{pl},\mathrm{Rd}}\;=\;\frac{\mathrm A\;\cdot\;{\mathrm f}_\mathrm y}{{\mathrm\gamma}_{\mathrm M0}}\\\mathrm{Equation}\;6.7:\;{\mathrm N}_{\mathrm u,\mathrm{Rd}}\;=\;\frac{0.9\;\cdot\;{\mathrm A}_\mathrm{net}\;\cdot\;{\mathrm f}_\mathrm u}{{\mathrm\gamma}_{\mathrm M2}}\end{array}$
4. ## Limit Values for Stability Analysis in RF-/STEEL EC3

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As of the program version X.11, the filter options of small compression forces or moments for stability analysis in RF‑/STEEL EC3 have been revised. The revision of these filter options in the “Stability” tab of the “Details” dialog box allows you to work in the module transparently since they are now independent of the design.

5. ## Design and Stabilization of Beams Susceptible to Lateral-Torsional Buckling According to Eurocode 3 and AISC

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A single‑span beam with lateral and torsional restraint is to be designed according to the recommendations of Eurocode 3 and AISC. If the beam does not reach the required load‑bearing capacity, it must be stabilized.

6. ## Limit Loads in Special Cases

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For situations where no design is available, RF‑/STEEL EC3 provides the option to neglect the respective internal forces. Examples of such situations are:

• Bending and compression on angle sections
• Multi-axial bending for the design according to General Method
• Torsion
7. ## Determination of Effective Widths According to EN 1993-1-5, Annex E

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Eurocode 3 provides Table 5.2 for the classification of cross‑section parts supported on one or two sides and various load situations. Generally, the determination of effective widths is based on the limit stresses of the structural steel used. However, in DIN 18800, the b/t limits were determined on the basis of the actual stresses in the cross‑section. Thus, unfavorable limits may arise, especially for stresses below the yield strength, according to Eurocode 3.

8. ## Direct Sending of Model

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By clicking “File” → “Send ...,” you can directly send a model by e‑mail. Before doing this, it is important to save the file.

9. ## Extrude Surfaces

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In order to create a solid, you can right‑click the surface and then extrude it. The procedure is shown in the figure.

10. ## Manual Cross-Section Classification

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In RF-/TOWER Design, it is now possible to classify cross‑sections manually according to Eurocode 3. This option may be useful when local buckling is prevented by the design and so the cross‑section has to be assigned to Class 3.

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