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3.4.2 Reinforcement Layout
This tab controls the geometric specifications for the reinforcement.
The reinforcement mesh can be defined with two or three reinforcement directions for each surface side.
For serviceability limit state designs, only a reinforcement mesh with two directions is allowed.
The definition of the "top" and "bottom" surface side is described below in the Concrete Cover for Reinforcement section.
The concrete covers to be set in the Concrete Cover for Reinforcement section can be related to the reinforcement's Centroid or Edge distance.
When you select the Edge option in a pure ultimate limit state design, you have to specify the Bar diameter D.
For both sides of the surface, you specify the concrete covers of the Basic Reinforcement and, if necessary, the Additional Reinforcement . The dimensions represent either the centroids d of the individual layers or the reinforcements' edge distances cnom in direction φ1. The reinforcement directions must be defined in the dialog section below.
The "top" and the "bottom" surface side are defined as follows: The bottom surface is defined in direction of the positive local surface axis z, the top surface accordingly in direction of the negative local z-axis.
The RFEM graphic shows you the xyz coordinate systems of the surfaces as soon as you move the pointer across a surface. You can also use the shortcut menu of a surface (with a right-click) to switch the axes on and off.
To display the surface sides in different colors, select Colors in Graphics According to→+/- z Surface Side in the Display navigator (see figure on the left).
You can change the orientation of the local z-axis of a surface by using the Reverse Local Axis System option in the shortcut menu (see Figure 3.28). This way, it is possible to unify, for example, the orientation of walls in order to unambiguously assign the top and bottom reinforcement sides for vertical surfaces.
The model types Wall -- 2D - XZ (uX/uZ/φY) or Diaphragm -- 2D - XY (uX/uY/φZ) are models whose component's plane is exclusively subjected to compression or tension. In this case, it is not possible to create different reinforcement meshes for each surface side so that the input possibilities are limited to uniform concrete covers on both sides.
If you select the According to Standard check box, the [Edit] button becomes available. Use this button to open the dialog box shown in Figure 3.28.
In the upper section, you can define the parameters (exposure class, abrasion class, etc.) according to the standard. Based on these parameters, RF-CONCRETE Surfaces determines the required concrete covers.
You can specify the parameters for each surface side separately in the two dialog tabs.
The reinforcement directions φ are related to the local x-axes of the finite elements. In the Edit Surface dialog box of RFEM, you can check and, if necessary, adjust the axis system of the surfaces for the results output.
For curved surfaces, it is recommended to check the axes of the finite elements graphically: In the Display navigator of RFEM, select the FE Mesh → On Surfaces → FE Axis Systems x, y, z, → Indexes option.
The reinforcement directions are to be specified for each layer by means of the angles φ. Only positive angles are allowed. They represent the respective clockwise rotation of the reinforcement direction in relation to the corresponding x-axis.
For the model types "Wall" -- 2D - XZ (uX/uZ/φY) or "Diaphragm" -- 2D - XY (uX/uY/φZ), it is not possible to create different reinforcement meshes for each side of the surface. Thus, the input options are limited to uniform reinforcement directions on both surface sides.