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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
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AnswerThe reinforced concrete design in SHAPE-THIN has to be activated in the general data. As soon as the design is active, it is possible to set the design accordingly in a separate tab (Figure 01).There are three types for the design:Strain-Stress Diagram (Example 01):An available design ratio is determined by specifying the internal forcesExisting Safety (Example 02):The state of fracture (ratio = 100%) and; in relation to it; determines a certainty.Design (Example 03):By specifying a maximum and minimum diameter or a minimum and a maximum reinforcement, it is possible to increase the reinforcement within the design.Irrespective of which of the three methods is used, you have to specify the position of the reinforcement and an acting internal force (Figure 02).
AnswerIf stiffeners are welded into the crane runway, the corresponding notch category according to EN 1993-1-9, Table 8.4, detail 7 has to be considered for the fatigue design. This is implemented in CRANEWAY by creating additional stress points at the connection point of the stiffeners to the section. They can be adjusted manually in the settings for the detail categories depending on the geometry of the stiffener.During the fatigue design of the craneway girder, the design of the axial stress range is additionally performed in the newly created stress points for the x-locations on which a stiffener is provided.
AnswerIn the case of long crane runways and many cranes, the large number of load combinations can lead to a long calculation time. The following settings affect the calculation time significantly:
Calculation method for determining the internal forces
The fast calculation type may therefore be useful for the preliminary design.
- Fast calculation (calculation of all load combinations according to the 1st-order analysis, then calculation of the governing load combinations according to second-order analysis for torsional buckling)
- Detailed calculation (calculation of all load combinations according to second-order analysis for torsional buckling)
Maximum target length of the finite elementsThe maximum length of the finite elements generated for the calculation according to the second-order analysis for torsional buckling can be entered within a range of 100 mm to 2500 mm. The calculation time can be increased significantly by the finer division of finite elements.Thus, you should select a reasonable length of the finite elements for an optimized calculation time depending on the structural system. Usually, 8 elements for each girder span are enough to calculate the deformations with a deviation of less than 5% relative to the precise solution.
Number of load combinationsYou can use a reasonable setting of the load increment to control the number of generated load combinations. When entering the load increment, the generated number of crane load positions and load combinations is already displayed in a preview. A small load increment may result in many load combinations that take accordingly more time in the calculation.
In SHAPE-MASSIVE, you can select the 'Design' option for reinforced concrete design.In this case, an area of the possible reinforcement diameters can be defined when entering the reinforcement bars. In this defined area, the program can subsequently design a diameter which is in accordance with the bending design.By specifying the concrete cover, it is possible to check whether the designed reinforcing steel diameter can be inserted, or not.Provided the concrete cover was entered too large resp. the required diameter is too large, you will receive an error message after having started the calculation.
AnswerThe setting of partial safety factors can be done by defining the National Annex of the standard in the General Data. The predefined National Annexes can not be modified, but it is very easy to create a user-defined National Annex.In this case, it is possible to adjust all standard-specific factors.
AnswerIf you want to modify individual elements of an inserted cross-section, you can do this by various methods.
1. Select another cross-section from the cross-section libraryIf you edit the cross-section or select another one, the corresponding elements will change as well. Click the 'Parametric Input' button to modify the specified cross-section properties.This option is especially useful if you want to keep the base geometry and symmetry of the original cross-section. Sheet thicknesses and overall height or width can be adjusted very easily this way.
2. Dividing the section into individual elementsThus, single independent elements are created from the inserted cross-section. Subsequently, they can be edited like normally created elements.This procedure is useful, e.g. if you want to change the base geometry of the original cross-section.
These cross-section elements belong to an inserted cross-section and therefore cannot be edited individually.
If you want to modify single elements of an inserted cross-section, you can do it in several ways:
1. Select another cross-section from the cross-section libraryIf you edit the cross-section or select another one, the corresponding elements will change as well. Click the 'Parametric Input' button to modify the specified cross-section properties. This option is especially useful if you want to keep the base geometry and symmetry of the original cross-section. Sheet thicknesses and overall height or width can be adjusted very easily this way.
2. Dividing the section into individual elementsThus, single, independent elements are created from the inserted cross-section. Subsequently, they can be edited like normally created elements. This procedure is useful, e.g. if you want to change the base geometry of the original cross-section.
Contrary to RSTAB and RFEM, you can find the language setting of the RX-TIMBER add-on module in the project manager of the program. The corresponding setting can be found under "Edit" in the menu bar (see Figure 1).
In addition to the predefined supports "fixed" and "free", you can define a restraint in the RX-TIMBER BSH using the "Column" function. Spring stiffnesses are calculated analytically and displayed in the bottom right corner of the window (see Figure 1), whereby the relationships referring to height, cross-section and the definition going from "Hinged" to "Restrained" is used. These are considered for the later calculation. If you want to connect the beam rigidly to the column, you can make use of this function.
The distances of the crane axes can be entered in the "1.4 Loading" window within the crane parameters depending on the number of crane axes, see Figure 1.
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