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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
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In SHAPE-MASSIVE, you can select the 'Design' option for reinforced concrete design.In this case, an area of the possible reinforcement diameters can be defined when entering the reinforcement bars. In this defined area, the program can subsequently design a diameter which is in accordance with the bending design.By specifying the concrete cover, it is possible to check whether the designed reinforcing steel diameter can be inserted, or not.Provided the concrete cover was entered too large resp. the required diameter is too large, you will receive an error message after having started the calculation.
AnswerThe situation could be caused by the following conditions:
- Reinforcement layers are virtually adjacent to each other in the centroidal axis of the surface
- A smaller rebar diameter has been selected
- The cross-section is completely drawn, which means that there is no neutral axis depth.
In this case, the smallest distance between the reinforcement layers is applied as a lever arm. If it is close to zero, the lever arm is also applied close to zero.
AnswerIf the ultimate limit state is only considered, it is possible to define a different concrete cover by reinforcement direction in RF‑CONCRETE Surfaces (see Figure 01). Once the serviceability limit state is also designed, both reinforcement directions must be adjacent to each other. The different concrete cover by reinforcement direction cannot be taken into account anymore.
Consideration of 3D Design - Shell
In the case of the design in a 3D structure, the element is considered as a shell. Both the moments and axial forces can act here, which are transformed into the design membrane forces. These design membrane forces are then used to determine the required reinforcement. In connection with the transformation from moments and axial forces, the smaller lever arm from both reinforcement directions is applied. Thus, only one governing lever arm is assumed for both directions.
Consideration 2D Design - Slab
In the case of the design in a 2D structure, the surface element is considered as a slab. Only the moments act, which are designed with the corresponding lever arm of the direction. Thus, each direction is supposed to have its respective lever arm.
AnswerNo, this is unfortunately not possible.The program concept of RF‑CONCRETE Surfaces is designed in such a way that it is always necessary to place the reinforcement on the top and the bottom layer.You can try to concentrate the individual reinforcement layers in the center of the surface, if necessary. However, make sure that the individual reinforcement layers do not "touch" each other. Otherwise, an error message appears. See Figure 01.
It is only possible to enter concrete covers of individual reinforcement layouts independently if no serviceability limit state design is performed.
As soon as you have selected a load for the serviceability limit state design in Table 1.1 in RF-CONCRETE Surfaces, the reinforcement layouts will be coupled together.
A separate modification of concrete covers for various reinforcement directions is possible only when there is no serviceability limit state performed. Otherwise, the concrete cover is automatically adjusted according to the reinforcement diameter.
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Wind Simulation & Wind Load Generation
With the stand-alone program RWIND Simulation, wind flows around simple or complex structures can be simulated by means of a digital wind tunnel.
The generated wind loads acting on these objects can be imported to RFEM or RSTAB.
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