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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
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The directions of the warp and weft are linked to the axes of the surface. With the default setting, only an isotropic prestress can be applied. If the axes are aligned, orthotropic or radial prestress will be available as well.
The procedure is demonstrated in the video.
AnswerThe reinforcement direction phi 1 and phi 2 will be displayed in dialog 1.4 when clicking one of the cells displayed in Figure 01.
Displaying the primary load-bearing direction in the RF-LAMINATE add-on moduleWhile entering data in the RF-LAMINATE add-on module, there is an option to control the orthotropic direction of each individual layer graphically. To do this, simply place the cursor in the desired row of the corresponding position. Then, a coordinate system is displayed in the surface in the RFEM model (see Figure 01). This is to be interpreted as follows:red axis = x-axis = β-value of the corresponding layerGenerally, the outer layers specify the main load-bearing direction, which is why it is sufficient to consider only the first layer. The red axis specifies the primary load-bearing direction (see Figure 01).
Displaying the primary load-bearing direction in RFEMHowever, the primary load-bearing direction can also be interpreted directly in RFEM. The local axis systems of the surfaces can be displayed in detail (see Figure 02). The orthotropic direction β refers to the local x-axis of the surface. For the example shown in Figure 03, it has a consequence that the primary load-bearing direction for the left surface runs from one support to another and the secondary surface direction to the right surface. If you want to change the supporting direction for the right surface, it is possible to either rotate the local surface axis system (see Figure 04) or create a new structure and rotate the orthotropic direction β by 90° (see Figure 05).If the primary load-bearing direction is not clearly evident, it is worth taking a look at the stiffness matrix of the surface (see Figure 06). There, it is possible to find the 'decisive' load-bearing direction, e.g. by means of the bending stiffness. The element D11 refers to the local x-axis of the surface and the element D22 refers to the local axis y of the surface.
AnswerBy default, DIN A4 is preset as print format in portrait orientation. To change these settings, click the 'Page Size and Orientation of 3D PDF' button available in the graphic printout settings (see Figure 1).
It is always necessary to use the member orientation and member rotation when defining the columns consisting of several single members. Some members have the x-axis directed upwards or rotated (see Figure 1). Due to the different orientations, the sign changes for My or Mz.It is very easy to check these settings by activating the display of the member axis systems (see Figure).
AnswerThe individual members of a set of members must have the identical orientation. Furthermore, the orientation of the members and the set of members must correspond to each other.Solution:In the Display navigator, you can display and check the orientation of members and sets of members. Use the shortcut menu to reverse the orientation of the member or set of members (see Figure 03).
AnswerThe option controls how new structural elements in the construction stages are applied to the already existing deformed structure.Initial position:The new elements are applied with the orientation to the initial position, that is, to the provided geometry. The deformations are compensated throughout the construction process. In theory, there is a buckling in the geometry (Figure 02 1.)Tangential:The new elements are applied with the orientation of the already existing deformed elements, that is, tangential to them. The deformations are not compensated throughout the construction process. In theory, there is no buckling in the geometry (Figure 02 2.)
AnswerA solid can be assigned with stiffness in all three directions (x, y, z). The material model for this is named Orthtropic Elastic 3D or Orthotropic Plastic 3D (picture 1).The stiffness can be defined for E-Modulus and Shear Modulus of the Solid. The direction is ordered according the orientation of the Solid (picture 2).
AnswerFinally, all loads defined in RSBEWEG / RF-MOVE relate to members. For continuous member No. 1 defines the member orientation opposite to the set of members orientation. In set of members No. 2, however, the orientation set is equal to the member orientation.
You can easily adjust both systems by z. For example, select all members of the set of members No. 1 and modify the member orientation with the function shown in Figure 1 below. The moving loads must then be regenerated.
AnswerThe member allocation of members can be defined in the project navigator - Display under "Model -> Activate Members ". Alternatively, you could also display the member orientation using the member axis systems, because the x-axis of the member follows the same orientation.
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Wind Simulation & Wind Load Generation
With the stand-alone program RWIND Simulation, wind flows around simple or complex structures can be simulated by means of a digital wind tunnel.
The generated wind loads acting on these objects can be imported to RFEM or RSTAB.
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