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• ### Why do I obtain great differences in results for both the deformation and the bending moments when applying inclination by using imperfection to a single member and an articulated set of members with the same total length?

Imperfections are considered for the calculation with equivalent member loads. The applied force transverse to the longitudinal direction of the member results from the multiplication of an axial force and an angle.

In the case of a variable axial force distribution, the average per member is used.

Especially in the case of a load due to the increasing normal force (for example, due to dead load), great differences may occur because the force applied to a single member has a significantly longer lever arm.

If a vertical nodal load in combination with the imperfection is only applied to the column head, the results of the member and the set of members are identical.

In the following, there is a simple example with a member and a set of four individual members with a total length of 8.00 m.

In order to avoid the calculation abort due to instability (by the iterative determination of the normal force to be applied), the absolute inclination in LC2 with 200 mm and a linearly variable load (to increase the effect) in LC1 from 2.5 kN/m to 0.00 kN/m were applied.

The imperfection load to be applied has been obtained by using the "Result Diagrams on Member" dialog box and the linear smoothing option by area for all 2.00 m and applied as a vertical load with changing sign. The horizontal loads result from the multiplication of the vertical load by (200 mm / 8,000 mm)

These equivalent loads were then applied to the members as nodal loads in LC4 and compared with the results of CO1.

The very small differences in the results are caused by rounding errors and the calculation according to the second-order analysis.

• ### During the installation, I get a message saying that the files "hasplms.exe" and "hasplmv.exe" could not be deleted. What should I do?

As already mentioned in this message, the corresponding permissions to delete the files are missing or the files are in use.

To avoid this problem, the "Sentinel LDK License Manager" service should be stopped first.

Then, it is necessary to delete the files "hasplms.exe" and "hasplmv.exe" from the directory C:\Windows\System32.

Note 1: On some computers, the files are not located under C:\Windows\System32, but under C:\Program Files (x86)\Common Files\Aladdin Shared\HASP\.

Note 2: In some cases, it may happen that the files cannot be deleted. In this case, you have to move the files to the desktop, for example, and then delete them.

• ### In my model, members are connected diagonally to each other. Is it possible to assign an oblique cut to the member ends?

No, it is not possible. Members are nothing more than lines with a stiffness assigned to them using the cross-section definition. Therefore, the member is always "cut" perpendicularly to the member axis in the rendering.

• ### How can I deactivate the individual members for the calculation, for example, to simulate a column failure?

There are two ways to do this:

1. You can define the corresponding member as a null member. Thus, it is not considered in the calculation of all load cases and load combinations.
2. You can deactivate the corresponding member in all or only for certain load cases and/or load combinations. To do this, it is necessary to activate the "Modify stiffnesses" option in the calculation parameters of the load case or load combination. Then, you can deactivate this member in the additional tab window.

However, you should pay attention to the following points:

• When using the null member, a warning message appears if the member loads have been defined.
• In the case of generated loads, the loads are redistributed automatically when using the null member.
• If deactivating the member in the calculation parameters, the member loads and the determined generated loads are not considered. No error message appears in this case. It is necessary to redistribute the loads manually.
• ### How do I find the non-designable locations in the work window?

There are several ways to find the non-designable locations.

• If the location is selected by clicking the table row in the add-on module, it is indicated by an arrow in the graphic of the main program (see Figure 01). You can adjust the view by moving the add-on module window to the second screen, if necesary. Furthermore, there is the "Jump to Graphic to Change View" button available in the add-on module.
• If the add-on module window is closed, you can use the search function by clicking the menu Edit → "Find via Number." In this case, you can enter the FE node number noted previously.
• If you activate the results of the add-on module in the work window of RFEM and select the result display using "Values on Surfaces," you can select the "Notes Only" result option. The numbered notes are then displayed in the list at the bottom left of the screen.
• ### The network license includes both 2D and 3D licenses of RFEM/RSTAB. How can I ensure that I use the 2D version and not the 3D license?

The problem is that the 3D version shortcut is only created on the desktop during the installation.

When starting the program, the authorization is checked. If a 3D version is available, the 3D version is also started. However, if there is no 3D version available, it is checked whether a 2D version is licensed. If this is the case, the restricted 2D version is started automatically.

In order to start the 2D version with an existing 3D license, it is necessary to adjust the link on the desktop.

Copy the link and rename it accordingly.

Then, right-click the shortcut and select "Properties" from the shortcut menu, and add "/2D" to the path to *64.exe.

• ### When rotating the view, it seems that the coordinates X and Y are reversed. Is there a display problem?

The described effect is not a display error, but only a question of perspective and a good example of an optical illusion. It depends on whether you perceive the representation of the axis system as an inner or outer corner.

###### Example: Rubik's Cube in Isometric View

The yellow side of the cube is the top surface. In the preset isometric view, you can see the inner corner of the coordinate system diagonally from above. If you simply turn the view upside down, so that Z points upwards, X to the right, and Y to the left, you can look at the bottom side of the cube, that is from above on the lower outer corner of the coordinate system.

If you rotate the view by 45 ° about the horizontal axis, you may get the impression that you look at the inner corner of the coordinate system. However, this is the outer corner.

• ### When trying to perform a calculation, I get the message "The path to RWIND Simulation working directory cannot contain any non-ASCII characters." What can I do?

The working directory is a local path where the data of the currently opened structure is temporarily handled and saved. It consists of the first letters of the file. Only ASCII characters may be used.

The non-ASCII characters are, for example, "ä," "ö," and "ß."

To avoid this problem, replace the special characters in the file name by the ASCII characters, such as "ae" and "ss" instead of "ä" and "ß." When you open the file again, the message will no longer appear.
• ### After a few days the activated softlock license, student license, or trial version has worked, it cannot be run anymore due to a license problem. On some computers, the message "Virtual machine detected" appears.What is the reason for this?

If using a real computer with the Windows operating system and there were no hardware changes and/or new installation of the operating system, the license problem is usually caused by the following:

• The mandatory service "Sentinel LDK License Manager" may be damaged after a Windows update.

• The antivirus program blocks the hasplms.exe file.
Solution: Add hasplms.exe from the directory to the exceptions of the antivirus program.

• Other security software (for example, Sandboxie) prevents proper communication of the license service.
Solution: You can either add hasplms.exe to the trusted programs or uninstall this software.
• ### Why are there different equivalent stresses in RFEM and RF‑STEEL, although the same CO is considered?

It is possible to display or calculate the stresses in RFEM as well as in the add-on module by means of the following smoothing options:

• Constant on Elements
• Non-Continuous
• Continuous Within Surfaces
• Continuous Total
• Continuously by Groups / Continuous by Groups

To compare the results, the same display type and calculation type must be selected in RFEM and RF‑STEEL Surfaces.

In RFEM, it is possible to do this in Project Navigator Display → Results → Surfaces → Distribution of Internal Forces/Stresses (Figure 02). In RF‑STEEL Surfaces, this can be displayed or changed in Details → "Options" tab (Figure 03).

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#### First Steps

We provide hints and tips to help you get started with the main programs RFEM and RSTAB.

#### Wind Simulation & Wind Load Generation

With the stand-alone program RWIND Simulation, wind flows around simple or complex structures can be simulated by means of a digital wind tunnel.

The generated wind loads acting on these objects can be imported to RFEM or RSTAB.

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