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Why Dlubal Software?
Wind Simulation & Wind Load Generation
With the stand-alone program RWIND Simulation, wind flows around simple or complex structures can be simulated by means of a digital wind tunnel.
The generated wind loads acting on these objects can be imported to RFEM or RSTAB.
In the existing standard, there were no regulations for the distribution of snow loads for elevated solar thermal and photovoltaic systems on roofs. It was only advised to distribute the loads. Only with the National Annex DIN EN 1991-1-3/NA: 2019-04, concrete rules have been taken for this.
The following study compares the wind pressure on a tall building obtained by RWIND Simulation with the results published by Dagnew et al. at the 11th Americas Conference on Wind Engineering in June 2009. In this paper, the Commonwealth Advisory Aeronautical Council (CAARC) building is used as a model and results of several different numerical methods are compared with experimental data obtained from wind-tunnels.
In order to consider inaccuracies regarding the position of masses in a response spectrum analysis, the standard EN 1998-1 specifies rules which have to be applied in both the simplified and multi-modal response spectrum analysis. These rules describe the following general procedure: The story mass must be shifted by a certain eccentricity, which results in a torsional moment.
Buildings often have extensions. If the roof levels are not at the same height, this height difference (if more than 0.5 m) must additionally be considered for the snow load assumption.
The ASCE 7-16 standard requires both balanced and unbalanced snow load case scenarios for a structure's design consideration. While this may be more intuitive for flat or even gable/hip type roofs, the determination of snow loads is increasingly more difficult for arch roofs due to complex geometry. However, with guidance from the ASCE 7-16 on snow load calculations for curved roofs and RFEM's efficient load application tools, it's possible to consider both balanced and unbalanced snow loads for a reliable and safe structure design.
As gravity loads act on a structure, lateral displacement occurs. In turn, a secondary overturning moment is generated as the gravity load continues to act on the elements in the laterally displaced position. This effect is also known as "P-Delta (Δ)." Sect. 126.96.36.199 of the ASCE 7-16 Standard and the NBC 2015 Commentary specify when P-Delta effects should be considered during a modal response spectrum analysis.
The wind, which blows parallel to the surfaces of a structure, can generate friction forces on these surfaces. This effect is mainly important for very large structures.
DIN EN 1998-1 with the National Annex DIN EN 1998-1/NA specifies how to determine seismic loads. The standard applies to structural engineering in seismic areas.
For crane runways with large spans, the horizontal load from skewing is often relevant for the design. This article describes the origin of these forces and the correct input in CRANEWAY. The practical implementation and the theoretical background are discussed.
The wind loads are regulated according to Eurocode 1 - Actions on structures - part 1-4: General actions - Wind loads. The nationally determined parameters of a respective country can be found in the National Annexes.
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