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Wind Simulation & Wind Load Generation
With the stand-alone program RWIND Simulation, wind flows around simple or complex structures can be simulated by means of a digital wind tunnel.
The generated wind loads acting on these objects can be imported to RFEM or RSTAB.
The calculation of timber panels is carried out on simplified member or surface structures. This article describes how to determine the required stiffness.
The fundamental requirements of a structural system are, according to the basis of structural design, sufficient ultimate limit state, serviceability and resistance. Structures must be designed in such a way that no damage occurs due to events such as the impact of a vehicle.
The stiffening of timber structures is usually carried out by means of timber panels. For this purpose, structural components consisting of slabs (chipboards, OSB) are connected with members. Several articles will describe the basics of this construction method and the calculation in the RFEM program. This first article describes the basic determination of the stiffnesses as well as the calculation.
In addition to determine loads, there are some particularities concerning the load combinatorics in timber design which have to be considered. Contrary to steel structures where the largest loading results from all unfavorable actions, in timber construction, the strength values are dependent on the load duration and the timber humidity. Special characteristics have to be considered as well for the serviceability limit state design. The following article discusses the effects on the design of wooden elements and how this is possible with RSTAB and RFEM.
There are several options to calculate a semi-rigid composite beam. They differ primarily in the type of modeling. Whereas the Gamma method ensures a simple modeling, additional efforts are required when using other methods (e.g. shear analogy) for the modeling which are, however, offset by the much more flexible application compared to the Gamma method.
Stability Analysis of Two-Dimensional Structural Components on Example of Cross-Laminated Timber Wall 2
The following article describes design using the equivalent member method according to  Section 6.3.2, performed on the example of cross-laminated timber wall susceptible to buckling described in Part 1 of this article series. The buckling analysis will be performed as a compressive stress analysis with reduced compressive strength. For this, the instability factor kc is determined, which depends primarily on the component slenderness and the support type.
In RF‑/TIMBER Pro, you can now also perform the vibration analysis known from DIN 1052 for the design according to EN 1995‑1‑1. In this analysis, the deflection under permanent and quasi-permanent action at the ideal one‑span beam may not exceed a limit value (6 mm according to DIN 1052). If the relationship shown in the graphic between natural frequency and deflection is considered for a hinged one‑span beam that is subjected to a constant uniform load, then the 6 mm result in a minimum natural frequency of about 7.2 Hz. If we take into account the fact that in most National Annexes of EC 5, a minimum natural frequency of 8.00 Hz is to be considered, then we obtain a maximum deflection of about 5 mm. If the structural system deviates from a hinged one‑span beam (for example a continuous beam, cantilevers, restraints), then the limit deflection is to be considered.
In an earlier post, we looked at the possibility of satisfying the minimum frequency in RF‑/TIMBER Pro. In this post, we want to illustrate this topic by in an example.
For wide-span ceilings, the vibration design of cross‑laminated timber plates is often governing. The advantage of the lighter material of timber over concrete turns into a disadvantage because a high mass material is advantageous for a low natural frequency.
As of the program version X.06 of the add‑on modules RF‑/TIMBER Pro, RF‑/TIMBER AWC and RF‑/TIMBER CSA, it is possible to consider notches and cross‑section reductions in the design. The procedure is as follows.
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