# Knowledge Base

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1. ## Calculating Timber Panel Walls | 1. Determining the Ultimate Limit State and Stiffness

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The stiffening of timber structures is usually carried out by means of timber panels. For this purpose, structural components consisting of slabs (chipboards, OSB) are connected with members. Several articles will describe the basics of this construction method and the calculation in the RFEM program. This first article describes the basic determination of the stiffnesses as well as the calculation.

2. ## Considering End Releases Between Surfaces

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This article deals with considering end releases between surfaces with line hinges and line releases. Examples are joints in reinforced concrete structures or frame joints in cross-laminated timber structures.
3. ## Orthotropic Material Laws

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Orthotropic material laws are used wherever materials are arranged according to their loading. Examples include fiber-reinforced plastics, trapezoidal sheets, reinforced concrete or timber.

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5. ## Hardening Parameters in Nonlinear Material Models

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Strain hardening is the material ability to reach a higher stiffness by redistributing (stretching) microcrystals in the crystal lattice of the structure. A distinction is made between the material isotropic hardening as scalar quantities or tensorial kinematic hardening.

6. ## Nonlinear Material Model Damage

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One of my earlier articles described the Isotropic Nonlinear Elastic material model. However, many materials do not have a purely symmetrical nonlinear material behaviour. In this regard, the yield laws according to von Mises, Drucker-Prager and Mohr-Coulomb mentioned in this previous article are also limited to the yield surface in the principal stress space.

7. ## Comparison of Girder Grillage Calculation with Calculation Using Orthotropic Plates

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Composite beams in a three-dimensional analysis are usually connected with orthotropic plates. The longitudinal direction of the plate stiffness is defined by a main beam and the transverse direction by an orthotropic plate. The stiffness of the plate in the longitudinal direction is set almost to zero. This article explains the determination of stiffnesses in the orthotropic plate.

8. ## Structural Analysis of Kerto-Q

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The library of RF‑LAMINATE now includes the product Kerto‑Q by the Metsä Wood company. All LVL panels are available, including the characteristic strength parameters.

9. ## Combination According to EN 1991-1-1

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In the category H - Roofs, imposed loads have to be applied. These are usually the technician loads for construction and maintenance. Since there is no maintenance for snow, the category H must not include both snow and imposed loads together. You can consider this in the options for automatic combinations.

10. ## Torsion Design of Glulam Beams

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Long-span glued-laminated beams are usually supported by a reinforced concrete column with torsional restraints.

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