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Wind Simulation & Wind Load Generation
With the stand-alone program RWIND Simulation, wind flows around simple or complex structures can be simulated by means of a digital wind tunnel.
The generated wind loads acting on these objects can be imported to RFEM or RSTAB.
This article describes the basic principles and modeling approaches of pulley systems in RFEM.
Pay particular attention to connection points of members and surfaces when you deal with mixed systems because not all internal forces can always be transferred without difficulty at the coupling location.
When evaluating line support forces, implausible diagrams sometimes arise at first sight. In particular, for variable loads at locations that also have a nodal support, at division points and edge locations of supported lines, the results show sometimes unexpected support reactions. Using the function of the linear smooth distribution in the Project Navigator - Display does not always lead to the expected result diagram.
When performing control calculations and comparing the internal forces and the resulting required reinforcement of downstand beams, it might happen that large differences occur. Although the same load assumptions and spans are applied, some programs or the manual calculation display very differently internal forces compared to the FEA model. The differences already occur in the case of the centric member and without considering the internal forces components from the possible effective slab widths.
For more detailed investigations of shear/hole bearing connections or their immediate environment, the definition of the non-linear contact problem plays an important role. This article uses a solid model to search for comparable and simplified surface models.
If a canopy roof, for example a filling station roof, should be designed, a load determination having regard to Section 7.3 of EN 1991-1-4 is required. This article shows with an example the design of a slightly inclined troughed roof.
Especially when the adjacent area of connection points should be analyzed, the geometry or load of the connection does not correspond to the standard specifications and/or a structure should be analyzed with an FE model (for example in plant engineering), it is necessary to evaluate the connections in detail on the FE model.
In this example, design resistance of an end plate according to EN 1993-1-8  is to be determined; the other components are not described here. To check the results, the dimensions of the connection IH 3.1 B 30 24 of Typified Connections  were used. The material S 235 and bolts with the strength 10.9 are used.
When designing bending-resistant connections from I-beams, the connection is dissolved into the individual parts. For these basic components of a joint, there are separate formula calculators for load-bearing capacity and stiffness. In RFEM and RSTAB, it is possible to design frame joints using the RF-/FRAME-JOINT Pro add-on module.
In the case of a parallel offset of the structural plane of members and surfaces, or in the case of applying an axial offset to members, the function of eccentricities may be useful.
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