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  1. Classification of Surfaces Total Pressure Coefficients

    Determination of Wind Loads for Canopy Roof Structures According to EN 1991-1-4

    If a canopy roof, for example a filling station roof, should be designed, a load determination having regard to Section 7.3 of EN 1991-1-4 is required. This article shows with an example the design of a slightly inclined troughed roof.
  2. Figure 01 - Snow Load Zones of Germany

    Snow Load on Monopitch and Duopitch Roofs

    In Germany, DIN EN 1991-1-3 with the National Annex DIN EN 1991-1-3/NA regulates the snow loads. The standard applies to civil engineering works at an altitude of up to 1,500 m above sea level.
  3. Consideration of the Correlation with Wind Loads

    If the wind load for buildings or structures is to be determined by the simultaneous assumption of aerodynamic pressure and suction coefficients on the windward and leeward sides of the building, the correlation of the wind pressure on zones D and E of the wall surfaces may be taken into account.
  4. Figure 01 - Frame Dimensions

    Determining Force Coefficient of Resulting Member Loads for Plane Lattice Structures from Wind Load

    This article presents a simple example of a lattice structure to explain how to determine wind loading as a function of the lattice solidity.

  5. Figure 02 – 3D View of Industrial Hangar

    Determination of Internal Pressure Coefficient cpi for One-Storey Buildings According to EN 1991-1-4

    Wind is the only climatic load acting on every single type of structure in the entire world, different from other loads like snow, for example. The wind size depends on the geographical location of the structure. That is one of the main reasons why today’s standards have regional division (wind zones) and consideration of altitude, as well as variation of dynamic pressure depending on the height above ground for a ‘normal’ site, without masking effect.

  6. Figure 02 - Resultant Position

    Loading According to EN 1991-1-4 and Safety Against Overturning of Circular Cylinders

    This article describes the determination of force coefficients by using a wind load and the calculation of a stability factor due to overturning.

  7. Figure 01 - Layout and Dimensions of Cement Silo

    Loads on Silo Hopper According to EN 1991-4

    My previous article describes actions on silos according to EN 1991-4. With an example of a free standing cylindrical silo for cement with a conical hopper, filling loads of the silo hopper were calculated.

  8. Combination According to EN 1991-1-1

    Combination According to EN 1991-1-1

    In the category H - Roofs, imposed loads have to be applied. These are usually the technician loads for construction and maintenance. Since there is no maintenance for snow, the category H must not include both snow and imposed loads together. You can consider this in the options for automatic combinations.

  9. 1 - Silo Forms Showing Dimensions and Pressure Notation

    Actions on Silos According to EN 1991-4

    Silos are used as large containers for storing bulk materials such as agricultural products or source materials as well as intermediates of industrial production. Structural engineering of such structures requires a precise knowledge of the stresses due to particulate solids in the building structure. The standard EN 1991‑4 ‘Actions on Silos and Tanks’ [1] provides general principles and requirements for determining these actions.

  10. 1 - Storehouse with Dome on Circular Base

    Generating Wind Loads on Dome with Circular Base According to EN 1991-1-4 in RFEM

    Due to the structural efficiency and economic benefits, dome‑shaped roofs are frequently used for storehouses or stadiums. Even if the dome has the corresponding geometrical shape, it is not easy to estimate wind loads due to the Reynolds number effect. The external pressure coefficients (cpe) depend on the Reynolds numbers and on the slenderness of the structure. EN 1991‑1‑4 [1] can help you estimate the wind loads on a dome. Based on this, the following article explains how to define a wind load in RFEM.

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