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  1. Module Window 1.1 General Data

    Input

    After starting the module, the joint group (rigid joints) is selected first, followed by joint category and joint type (rigid end plate connection or rigid splice plate connection). The nodes to be designed are then selected from the RFEM/RSTAB model. RF-/JOINTS Steel - Rigid automatically recognizes the joint members and determines due to its location if they are columns or beams. The user can intervene here.

    If certain members are to be excluded from the calculation, they can be deactivated. Similarly designed joints can be analyzed simultaneously for several nodes. The governing load cases, load combinations or result combinations have to be selected for the loading. It is also possible to enter sections and loads manually. The joint is configured step by step in the last input table.

  2. Module Window 3.1 Designs - Summary

    Results

    Result windows list details of all calculation results. Moreover, a 3D graphic is created where it is possible to show and hide single components as well as dimension lines and, for example, weld data.
    The summary shows whether or not the individual designs have been fulfilled. In addition, the node number and the governing load case or the governing load/result combination are indicated.

    When selecting a design, the module shows the detailed intermediate results including the actions and the additional internal forces from the connection geometry. Moreover, there is the option to display the results by load case and by node. The connections are represented in a realistic 3D rendering possible to scale. In addition to the main views, it is possible to show the graphics from any perspective.

    You can add the graphics with dimensions and labels to the RFEM/RSTAB printout or export them as DXF. The printout report includes all input and result data prepared for test engineers. It is possible to export all tables to MS Excel or as a CSV file. A special transfer menu defines all specifications required for the export.

  3. Features

    General
    • Beam to Column joint category: connection possible as joint of the beam to the column flange as well as joint of the column to the girder flange
    • Beam to Beam joint category: design of beam joints as both moment resisting end plate connections and rigid splice connection
    • Automatic export of model and load data possible from RFEM or RSTAB
    • Bolt sizes from M12 to M36 with the strength grades 4.6, 4.8, 5.6, 5.8, 6.8, 8.8 und 10.9 as long as the strength grades are available in the selected National Annex
    • Almost any bolt spacing and edge distances (a check of the allowable distances is performed)
    • Beam strengthening with tapers or stiffeners on the top and bottom surface
    • End plate connection with and without overlap
    • Connection with pure bending stress, pure normal force load (tension joint) or combination of normal force and bending possible
    • Calculation of connection stiffnesses and check if a hinged, semi-rigid or rigid connection exists
    End plate connection in a beam-column setup
    • Joint beams or columns can be stiffened with tapers on one side or with stiffeners to one or both sides
    • Wide range of possible stiffeners of the connection (e.g. complete or incomplete web stiffeners)
    • Up to ten horizontal and four vertical bolts possible
    • Connected object possible as constant or tapered I-section
    • Designs:
      • Ultimate limit state of the connected beam (such as shear or tension resistance of the web plate)
      • Ultimate limit state of the end plate at the beam (e.g. T-stub under tensile stress)
      • Ultimate limit state of the welds at the end plate
      • Ultimate limit state of the column in the area of the connection (e.g. column flange under bending – T-stub)
      • All designs are performed according to EN 1993-1-8 and EN 1993-1-1 
    Moment resisting end plate joint
    • Two or four vertical, and up to ten horizontal bolt rows possible
    • Joint beams can be stiffened with tapers on one side or with stiffeneres to one or both sides
    • Connected objects are possible as constant or tapered I-sections
    • Designs:
      • Ultimate limit state of the connected beams (such as shear or tension resistance of the web plates)
      • Ultimate limit state of the end plates at the beam (e.g. T-stub under tensile stress)
      • Ultimate limit state of the welds at the end plates
      • Ultimate limit state of the bolts in the end plate (combination of tension and shear)
    Rigid splice plate connection
    • For the flange plate connection, up to ten bolt rows one behind the other possible
    • For the web plate connection, up to ten bolt rows possible each in vertical and horizontal direction
    • Material of the cleat can be different from the one of the beams
    • Designs:
      • Ultimate limit state of the joint beams (e.g. net cross-section in the tension area)
      • Ultimate limit state of the cleat plates (e.g. net cross-section under tensile stress)
      • Ultimate limit state of the single bolts and the bolt groups (e.g. shear resistance design of the single bolt)
  4. Member Hinge Nonlinearity "Scaffolding Diagram"

    The member hinge nonlinearities "Scaffolding - N phiy phiz" and "Scaffolding Diagram" enable the mechanical simulation of a tube joint with an inner stub between two member elements.

    The equivalent model transfers the bending moment via the overpressed outer pipe and after positive locking additionally via the inner stub, depending on the compression state at the member end.

  5. Effective Cross-Section in SHAPE-THIN 8

    Calculation of stiffened buckling panels according to EN 1993-1-5, 4.5

    In SHAPE-THIN 8, the effective cross-section of stiffened buckling panels can be calculated according to EN 1993-1-5, Cl. 4.5. The critical buckling stress is calculated according to EN 1993-1-5, Annex A.1 for buckling panels with at least 3 longitudinal stiffeners or according to EN 1993-1-5, Annex A.2 for buckling panels with one or two stiffeners in the compression zone. The design for torsional buckling safety is also performed.
  6. Determination of Rayleigh Damping in RF-/DYNAM Pro - Forced Vibrations

    Conversion of Lehr's Damping into Rayleigh Damping

    Calculation in consideration of a damping (Lehr's damping as well) is not possible in the direct time step integrations. Instead, the Rayleigh damping coefficients are specified by the user.

    In technical literature, the given damping for specific construction forms is in many cases only a rough approximation of the real damping ratios. In RF-/DYNAM Pro - Forced Vibrations, it is possible to use the damping value to determine the Rayleigh damping. This may occur at one or two natural angular frequencies defined by the user.

  7. Export of Reinforcement Objects from RFEM to Revit

    Export of Reinforcement RFEM - Revit

    Surface reinforcements defined in the RF-CONCRETE Surfaces add-on module can be exported as reinforcement objects to Revit by using the direct interface.
  8. Automatic Determination of Number of Load Increments

    If the check box "Number of load increments" is deactivated, the number of load increments will be determined automatically in RFEM to solve nonlinear tasks efficiently. The method used is based on a heuristic algorithm.
  9. Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    With this function, it is possible to refine the FE mesh on surfaces automatically. The mesh refinement is carried out step by step. In each step, a new FE mesh according to the numeric error analysis of the previous step will be generated. The numeric error will be evaluated by means of the results on surface elements and is based on the energy formulation by Zienkiewicz-Zhu.
    The error analysis is carried out for a linear static analysis. A load case (or a load combination) is selected for which the FE mesh will be generated. The FE mesh will be used for all calculations.
  10. Member Type "Dashpot"

    The member type "Dashpot" can be used for time history analyses in RFEM/RSTAB with the add-on modules RF-/DYNAM Pro - Forced Vibrations and RF-/DYNAM Pro - Nonlinear Time History. This linear viscous damping element considers forces dependent on velocity.

    With regard to viscoelasticity, the member type "Dashpot" is similar to the Kelvin-Voigt model which consists of the damping element and an elastic spring (both connected in parallel).

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