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  1. Figure 01 - Determination of Rayleigh Damping in RF-/DYNAM Pro - Forced Vibrations

    Conversion of Lehr's Damping into Rayleigh Damping

    Calculation in consideration of a damping (Lehr's damping as well) is not possible in the direct time step integrations. Instead, the Rayleigh damping coefficients are specified by the user.

    In technical literature, the given damping for specific construction forms is in many cases only a rough approximation of the real damping ratios. In RF-/DYNAM Pro - Forced Vibrations, it is possible to use the damping value to determine the Rayleigh damping. This may occur at one or two natural angular frequencies defined by the user.

  2. Figure 01 - Member Type "Dashpot" in RFEM

    Member Type "Dashpot"

    The member type "Dashpot" can be used for time history analyses in RFEM/RSTAB with the add-on modules RF-/DYNAM Pro - Forced Vibrations and RF-/DYNAM Pro - Nonlinear Time History. This linear viscous damping element considers forces dependent on velocity.

    With regard to viscoelasticity, the member type "Dashpot" is similar to the Kelvin-Voigt model which consists of the damping element and an elastic spring (both connected in parallel).

  3. Figure 01 - Display of pushover curve in the calculation diagrams in RF-DYNAM Pro

    Pushover Analysis

    In RFEM, it is possible to determine pushover curves (also called capacity curves) and export them to Excel.
  4. RF-/DYNAM Pro - Nonlinear Time History | Features

    • User-defined time diagrams as a function of time, in a tabular form, or as harmonic loads
    • Combination of the time diagrams with RFEM/RSTAB load cases or combinations (enables definition of nodal, member and surface loads as well as free and generated loads varying over time)
    • Combination of several independent excitation functions
    • Nonlinear time history analysis with the implicit Newmark analysis (RFEM only) or the explicit analysis
    • Structural damping using Raleigh damping coefficients or Lehr's damping
    • Direct import of initial deformations from a load case or combination (RFEM only)
    • Stiffness modifications as initial conditions, for example axial force effect, deactivated members (RSTAB only)
    • Graphical display of results in a time course monitor
    • Export of results in user-defined time steps or as an envelope
  5. RF-/DYNAM Pro - Nonlinear Time History | Nonlinearities

    • Nonlinear member types, such as tension and compression members or cables
    • Member nonlinearities, such as failure, tearing, yielding under tension or compression
    • Support nonlinearities, such as failure, friction, diagram, and partial activity
    • Release nonlinearities, such as friction, partial activity, diagram, and fixed if positive or negative internal forces
  6. Figure 01 - General input data

    RF-/DYNAM Pro - Nonlinear Time History | Input

    RF-/DYNAM Pro - Nonlinear Time History is integrated in the structure of RF‑/DYNAM Pro - Forced Vibrations and extended by two nonlinear analysis methods (one nonlinear analysis in RSTAB).

    Force-time diagrams can be entered as transient, periodic or as a function of time. Dynamic load cases combine the time diagrams with the static load cases, which provides a great flexibility. Furthermore, it is possible to define time steps for the calculation, structural damping, and export options in the dynamic load cases.

  7. Figure 01 - Selecting the nonlinear analysis in RF-DYNAM Pro - Nonlinear Time History

    RF-/DYNAM Pro - Nonlinear Time History | Calculation

    Calculation in RFEM
    The nonlinear time history analysis is performed with the implicit Newmark analysis or the explicit analysis. Both are the direct time integration methods. The implicit analysis requires small time steps to provide precise results. The explicit analysis determines the required time step automatically to provide the stability to the solution. The explicit analysis is suitable for the analysis of short excitations, such as impulse excitation, or an explosion.

    Calculation in RSTAB
    The nonlinear time history analysis is performed with the explicit analysis. This is a direct time integration method and determines the required time step automatically in order to provide the solution stability.

  8. Figure 01 - Time course monitor (temporary failure of tension member due to vibration stress)

    RF-/DYNAM Pro - Nonlinear Time History | Results

    Due to the integration of RF‑/DYNAM Pro in RFEM or RSTAB, you can incorporate numeric and graphic results from RF‑/DYNAM Pro - Forced Vibrations to the global printout report. Also, all RFEM and RSTAB options are available for a graphical visualization. The results of the time history analysis are displayed in a time course monitor.

    All results are plotted versus time. You can export the numeric values to MS Excel. It is possible to export the result combinations by exporting the results of the individual time steps or filtering the most unfavourable results of all time steps.

  9. RF-/DYNAM Pro - Equivalent Loads | Features

    • Response spectra according to various standards
    • The following standards are implemented:
      •  EN 1998-1:2010 (European Union)
      •  DTR B C 2-48 (Algeria)
      •  DTR RPA99 (Algeria)
      •  CIRSOC 103 (Argentina)
      • Australia AS1170.4 (Australia)
      •  ÖNORM B 4015:2007-02 (Austria)
      • Canada NBC 2015 (Canada)
      •  NCh 433 1996 (Chile)
      • China GB 50011-2001 (China)
      • China GB 50011-2010 (China)
      •  NSR - 10 (Colombia)
      •  DIN 4149:1981-04 (Germany)
      •  DIN 4149:2005-04 (Germany)
      •  IS 1893:2002 (India)
      •  NTC 2008 (Italy)
      • Mexico CFE Sismo 08 (Mexico)
      •  SBC 301:2007 (Saudi Arabia)
      •  SANS 10160‑4 2010 (South Africa)
      •  NCSE-02 (Spain)
      •  SIA 261/1:2013 (Switzerland)
      •  SIA 261/1:2014 (Switzerland)
      •  O.G. 23089 + O.G. 23390 (Turkey)
      •  IBC 2000 (USA)
      •  IBC 2009-ASCE/SEI 7-05 (USA)
      •  IBC 2012/15 - ASCE/SEI 7-10 (USA)
    • The following National Annexes are available for EN 1998‑1:
      •  NA to BS EN 1998-1:2004:2008 (United Kingdom)
      •  ÖNORM EN 1991-1-1:2011-09 (Austria)
      • Belgium NBN - ENV 1998-1-1: 2002 NAD-E/N/F (Belgium)
      • Cyprus CYS EN 1998-1/NA:2004 (Cyprus)
      •  CSN EN 1998-1/NA:2007 (Czech Republic)
      •  NF EN 1998-1-1/NA:2014-09 (France)
      •  DIN EN 1998-1/NA:2011-01 (Germany)
      •  UNI-EN 1991-1-1/NA:2007 (Italy)
      •  NS-EN 1998-1:2004+A1:2013/NA:2014 (Norway)
      •  NP EN 1998-1/NA:2009 (Portugal)
      •  SR EN 1998-1/NA:2004 (Romania)
      •  STN EN 1998-1/NA:2008 (Slovakia)
      •  SIST EN 1998-1:2005/A101:2006 (Slovenia)
    • Input of user-defined response spectra
    • Direction-relative response spectra approach
    • Manual or automatic selection of the relevant mode shapes for response spectra (5 % rule from EC 8 applicable)
    • Generated equivalent static loads exported into load cases separately for each mode and direction
    • Result combinations by modal superimposition (SRSS rule) and by direction superimposition (SRSS or CQC rule)
    • Signed results based on the dominant mode shape can be generated
  10. RF-/DYNAM Pro - Natural Vibrations | Features

    • Automatic consideration of masses from self-weight
    • Direct import of masses from load cases or load combinations
    • Optional definition of additional masses (nodal, linear, surface masses, as well as inertia masses)
    • Combination of masses in different mass cases and mass combinations
    • Preset combination coefficients according to EC 8
    • Optional import of normal force distributions (in order to consider prestress, for example)
    • Stiffness modification (for example, deactivated members or stiffnesses can be imported from RF-/CONCRETE)
    • Consideration of failed supports or members
    • Definition of several natural vibration cases (for example to analyze different masses or stiffness modifications)
    • Results of eigenvalue, angular frequency, natural frequency and period
    • Determination of mode shapes and masses in nodes or FE mesh points
    • Results of modal masses, effective modal masses, and modal mass factors
    • Visualization and animation of mode shapes
    • Various scaling options for mode shapes
    • Documentation of numerical and graphical results in the printout report

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