Is the exponent n applied differently from the design standard when determining the damage parameter ζ (zeta)?


Yes, the exponent n is applied differently. Design details can help you to understand this. For EN 1992‑1‑1, for example, n=2 is applied (see Figure 01), and for CSA A23.3-14, n=3 is applied (see Figure 02).


Deformation analysis State II Zeta


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