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  • Answer

    The Load Transfer surface and Member Loads from Area Load (Load Wizards) use different approaches to distribute loads to the members. Therefore, they cannot be compared directly.

    The Load Transfer surface divides the surface into stripes in a specific direction, then investigates the loads on each stripe separately. The stripe width can be adjusted by activating the Advanced distribution settings option. If necessary, a larger stripe width may be used to “smooth out” the high jumps that are shown graphically (Image 2).

    On the other hand, the Load Wizards uses isotropic distribution, creates Voronoi cells, and investigates the load at each cell.

  • Answer

    Due to the modern online licensing system, the licenses for RFEM, RSTAB and all other Dlubal structural analysis software can be distributed all over the world. In the program, the License Manager provides an overview of the existing licenses. The full versions are marked with a green dot, the test versions with a blue dot, and the demo versions with a red dot.

    In the License Manager, you can also see which license is used by which user (a light-green dot), or which license is available to be used and this can be selected (a dark-green dot).

    The license configuration details in your Dlubal account can also be used to view the existing licenses and download the corresponding products.

  • Answer

    A nodal mesh refinement allows you to generally control the generation of an FE mesh to achieve an adapted discretization achieved in the refinement area around a node.

    You can select between two types of the mesh refinement that are available for the geometric shape of the refinement area:

    • Circular
    • Rectangular

    For the circular type, it is necessary to define the size of the circular compression area via a radius on the one hand, and the inner and the outer target length on the other hand. The outer FE length usually corresponds to the global mesh size.

    In the case of a rectangular type, the "Side Length" of the cube-shaped compression area as well as the "Inner Target FE Length" are specified.

    For circular refinements, you can use the "FE length arrangement" to control how the mesh size of the FE mesh expands from the inside to the outside. For this, a distinction is made between the following options:

    • Radial: The refinement area expands uniformly from the inside to the outside in the form of concentric circles.

    • Gradually: The gradual refinement is based on the same principle as the radial refinement. However, the difference is that the refinement is not carried out in the form of concentric circles, but in sections in the areas with the same mesh size. For this, as many square elements as possible are used.

    • Combined: In this case, the mesh is generated by a combination of radial and gradual adjustment. The refinement is basically the same as the gradual refinement. However, if there is a circular or arc-shaped line resting in the center of the refinement, the radial refinement applies.
  • Answer

    The raw data comes from DIN EN 1998‑1/NA:2021‑07, including the additional digital content. The GPS coordinates and the response acceleration SaP, R in the plateau area of the response spectrum are available in the form of an Excel table. It shows the GPS coordinates for the latitude and longitude in decimal degrees with an accuracy of 0.1°. The geo-zone tool also works with a grid size of 0.1°×0.1°. The values from the additional digital content are defined as a center of each cell. The result of the search query is then taken from the corresponding cell. Intermediate values are not interpolated nor extrapolated. Therefore, it may happen that the color range does not correspond the result from the cell, because the curves do not follow the grid, but lie on a separate layer. This layer has thus no influence on the results and is only used for a better overview.

    Example: City: Ludolf Camphausen Street in Cologne

    As you can see in the image, the location in the cell is located at 6.9° east and 50.9° north. Thus, the location you are looking for gets a response acceleration of 1.7144 m/s², as it is not interpolated.

  • Answer

    In the Effective Length dialog box, you can simply uncheck the "Lateral Torsional Buckling" option to exclude this check in the design add-on.

  • Answer

    You have selected "Rigid diaphragm" as the story slab stiffness in the Building Stories (Image 02). The "Rigid Diaphragm" is used to rigidly connect all components of a story in the floor plane with a rigid link. By doing so, the floor can no longer be defined with its real stiffness.

    Therefore, surfaces with the Load Transfer stiffness type must be used (Image 03). It is not possible to create the internal rigid couplings for surfaces with the "Standard" stiffness type.

  • Answer

    If no angle can be defined in the "Rotation" column, there is an isotropic material model selected for the material, where stiffnesses are identical in all directions and it is not necessary to define an angle.

    If you use materials with anisotropic behavior (for example, timber), it is necessary to ensure that the "Orthotropic | Linear Elastic (Surfaces)" material model is selected.

    Note: The "Orthotropic | Timber | Linear Elastic (Surfaces)" material model cannot be currently used in combination with the "Layers" thickness type.

    As soon as switching to the orthotropic material model, the individual layers can be rotated accordingly.

  • Answer

    If line hinges are to be defined on several boundary lines of surfaces at the same time, the following procedure is recommended:

    1. Create a new line hinge in the Data Navigator under "Types for Lines", or in the menu "Insert → Types for Lines → Line Hinges → Dialog Box".
    2. Define degrees of freedom as desired.
    3. Use the "Pick" function to select the desired area and then the desired lines.
    4. Do not click "OK" to confirm the function, but select further surfaces and lines using the "+" symbol.
    5. As soon as all line hinges have been assigned, click "OK" to confirm the function.
  • Answer

    To open your printout report in a different PDF reader than Adobe Reader, you should set the desired reader as the default one. However, you need to ensure that the chosen PDF reader supports 3D content so it can correctly display any 3D graphics that may be included.

    To change the default PDF reader, you can follow the following steps:

    1. Open the system settings.
    2. Go to "Apps", then "Default apps", and "Choose default apps by file type".
    3. Now, you can scroll down to find the ".pdf" file extension in the list sorted alphabetically, and then change the default PDF reader.

    The printout report is then exported to the desired PDF reader.

  • Answer

    RFEM default setting assumes the orthogonal combination of the X and Y directions. To apply the Independent Directional procedure, go to the Actions tab and change the action type from Simultaneously to Alternatively for Qe (Image 01).

    Next, go to the Design Situations tab and select Edit Combination Wizard. In the Standard Options tab, deactivate the “Include orthogonal combinations” option (Image 02).

    As shown under the Load Combinations tab, the orthogonal COs are no longer listed (Image 03).

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Wind Simulation & Wind Load Generation

With the individual program RWIND 2 , wind currents around simple or complex structures can be simulated using a digital wind tunnel.

The generated wind loads acting on these objects can be imported to RFEM or RSTAB.

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