# Knowledge Base

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1. ## Fin Plate Connections:

Fin plate connections are a popular form of pinned steel connections and are commonly used for secondary beams in steel structures. They can be easily used in beam structures arranged on the top edge, e.g. working platforms. Manufacturing expenditures in the workshop as well as the assembly costs on-site are normally manageable. The design seems to be completed easily and quickly, but has to be put into perspective to a certain extent in the following. Moreover, this connection type is basically possible as pinned beam to beam or pinned beam to column connection, whereas the first case is the more common one in design practice.
2. ## Modeling of Semi-Rigid Composite Beam Made of Timber as Surface Model

There are several options to calculate a semi-rigid composite beam. They differ primarily in the type of modeling. Whereas the Gamma method ensures a simple modeling, additional efforts are required when using other methods (e.g. shear analogy) for the modeling which are, however, offset by the much more flexible application compared to the Gamma method.
3. ## Snow Load on Monopitch and Duopitch Roofs

In Germany, DIN EN 1991-1-3 with the National Annex DIN EN 1991-1-3/NA regulates the snow loads. The standard applies to civil engineering works at an altitude of up to 1,500 m above sea level.
4. ## Definition of Stress Losses From Relaxation for Prestressed Concrete Design

When designing prestressed concrete components, the time-dependent stress losses from creeping, shrinkage and relaxation have to be considered. The consideration of relaxation losses when designing prestressed concrete in RF-TENDON and RF-TENDON Design is discussed in detail in the following.
5. ## Using Templates in VCmaster

By using an interface, it is possible to export the RFEM/RSTAB printout report to VCmaster and continue editing there. VCmaster is a word processing program for engineers.

6. ## Influcence of Line Load on Insulated Glass Pane

The proportion of glass when planning a building is increasing. Open, light-flooded buildings represent the modern art of architecture. However, specialized engineers have to face new challenges during their planning. Such an example are ceiling-high glass facades which are loaded by a handrail at the same time. The influence of this loading as well as the calculation of the deformation are shown in this article.
7. ## Secondary Reinforcement According to DIN EN 1992-1-1 9.2.1 to Ensure Ductile Structural Component Behavior

The secondary reinforcement according to DIN EN 1992-1-1 9.2.1 is used to ensure the desired structural behavior. It should avoid failure without prior notification. The minimum reinforcement has to be arranged independently of the size of the actual loading.
8. ## Orthotropic Material Laws

Orthotropic material laws are used wherever materials are arranged according to their loading. Examples include fiber-reinforced plastics, trapezoidal sheets, reinforced concrete or timber.

9. ## Punching Shear Design with Definition of Perimeters

With RF-PUNCH Pro, the punching shear design can be performed according to 6.4, EN 1992-1-1. In the following example, the design according to DIN EN 1992-1-1 will be presented first with automatic design of the inner and outer perimeters and then on the basis of the inner perimeters defined by the user on a simple example.

10. ## Consideration of Holes in Tension Design

For the tension design according to Clause 6.2.3 EN 1993-1-1, the following formulas are given to determine the tension resistance.

$\begin{array}{l}\mathrm{Equation}\;6.6:\;{\mathrm N}_{\mathrm{pl},\mathrm{Rd}}\;=\;\frac{\mathrm A\;\cdot\;{\mathrm f}_\mathrm y}{{\mathrm\gamma}_{\mathrm M0}}\\\mathrm{Equation}\;6.7:\;{\mathrm N}_{\mathrm u,\mathrm{Rd}}\;=\;\frac{0.9\;\cdot\;{\mathrm A}_\mathrm{net}\;\cdot\;{\mathrm f}_\mathrm u}{{\mathrm\gamma}_{\mathrm M2}}\end{array}$

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