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  1. Figure 01 - Model 1

    Methods of Supporting Plates by Columns

    In the case of plate structures, it is always necessary to consider the realistic definition support conditions. Depending on the way of defining the flexibility of the supports, clear differences may occur in the results.

  2. Figure 01 - Throat Thickness a of Fillet Weld (a) and Deep Penetration Fillet Weld (b)

    Design of Fillet Welds According to EN 1993-1-8

    A fillet weld is the most common weld type in steel building construction. According to EN 1993‑1‑8, (1) [1], fillet welds may be used for connecting structural parts where the fusion faces form an angle between 60° and 120°.

  3. Figure 01 - System and Loading According to [1]

    Columns Subjected to Tensile Stress in RF-/JOINTS Steel - Column Base

    The product range of Dlubal Software contains various modules for design of steel and timber connections. The RF-/JOINTS Steel - Column Base add-on module allows you to analyse footings of hinged or restrained steel column bases. For the cost-effective and safe design of the column base, the fastener selection, foundation geometry, and material quality are crucial.

  4. Figure 01 - Combinatorics

    Load Combinations for Pipe Stresses due to Occasional Loads

    The add-on modules RF-PIPING and RF-PIPING Design allow you to design piping systems according to EN 13480-3 [1], among other standards. In this case, the determination of pipe stresses is based on the formulas of Section 12.3 Flexibility analysis. Depending on the stress type, one or more resulting moments is applied without regard to each other. This differentiation occurs when determining the stresses due to occasional loads, for example.

  5. Figure 01 - Reduction Factor αh

    Imperfections According to EN 1993-1-1, Section 5.3.2: Global Initial Sway Imperfection

    According to EN 1993-1-1 [1], it is necessary to use the equivalent geometric imperfections with values that reflect the possible effects of all types of imperfections. EN 1993-1-1, Section 5.3, specifies basic imperfections for global analysis of frames as well as member imperfections.

  6. Figure 01 - Diverse Display of Concentrated Load

    Spatial and Planar Load Display

    In RFEM, structures can be modelled and analysed in a spatial environment. The permanent 3D visualization helps to better understand complex models and to represent the force flux. However, it is also possible to switch from a spatial mode to a planar sheet mode in the documentation of a calculation. For this, you have to describe the spatial calculation of the structure with all the necessary properties on ‘flat’ paper pages for an independent reader. Usually, you try to display the load actions and the corresponding results by using an orthogonal view of the substructure of the entire structure. Obviously, the load symbols depicted in the 3D mode in a view perpendicular to the load become unrecognizable due the missing expansion. In order to still be able to create a clear representation of all information, the corresponding adjustments are available in RFEM.

  7. Figure 01 - Internal Forces According to Large Deformation Analysis

    Post-Critical Analysis

    In the case of a post-critical failure, a substantial change in the geometry of a structure occurs. After reaching the instability of the equilibrium, a stable, strong position is reached again. The post-critical analysis requires an experimental approach. It is necessary to manually load the structure in increments step by step.

  8. Figure 02 – 3D View of Industrial Hangar

    Determination of Internal Pressure Coefficient cpi for One-Storey Buildings According to EN 1991-1-4

    Wind is the only climatic load acting on every single type of structure in the entire world, different from other loads like snow, for example. The wind size depends on the geographical location of the structure. That is one of the main reasons why today’s standards have regional division (wind zones) and consideration of altitude, as well as variation of dynamic pressure depending on the height above ground for a ‘normal’ site, without masking effect.

  9. Figure 01 - Structural System

    Control of Climatic Load on Insulated Glass Panes of Glass Structures

    Loading panes of insulating glass due to climatic effects are clearly regulated in DIN 18008. In the case of the corresponding pane geometry, this load type can also be governing for the ultimate limit state design. The FE design on the entire structure with the space between panes represented as the volume of a gas provides exact results for the analysis. However, a plausibility check is also becoming more and more important. This article shows various options of how to perform these checks.

  10. Figure 01 - Partial Cross-Sections with Example of Distribution of Mean Concrete Stress

    Downstand Beams, Ribs, T-Beams: Minimum Reinforcement for Partial Cross-Sections According to 7.3.2

    According to Section 7.3.2 (2), the standard EN 1992‑1‑1 [1] states: ‘In profiled cross‑sections like T‑beams and box girders, minimum reinforcement should be determined for the individual parts of the section (webs, flanges).’

    In the case of a T‑beam with a T‑section, the minimum reinforcement should be determined for both the chord and the web if the corresponding partial cross‑sections are in the tension area. Figure 01 shows the cross‑section classification.

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