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The following technical article describes the creation of a user-defined platform for use on a four-sided tower in the RF-/TOWER add-on modules. First, start with an empty model of the type 3D and define four nodes. The numbering and position of these nodes are very important here.
Using RF-CONCRETE Members, concrete column design is possible according to ACI 318-14. Accurately designing concrete column shear and longitudinal reinforcement is important for safety considerations. The following article will confirm the reinforcement design in RF-CONCRETE Members using step-by-step analytical equations per the ACI 318-14 standard including required longitudinal steel reinforcement, gross cross-sectional area, and tie size/spacing.
When introducing and transferring horizontal loads such as wind or seismic loads, there are increasing difficulties in 3D models. To avoid such issues, some standards (for example ASCE 7, NBC) require the simplification of the model by using diaphragms that distribute the horizontal loads to structural components transferring loads, but cannot transfer bending themselves (called "Diaphragm").
When performing control calculations and comparing the internal forces and the resulting required reinforcement of downstand beams, it might happen that large differences occur. Although the same load assumptions and spans are applied, some programs or the manual calculation display very differently internal forces compared to the FEA model. The differences already occur in the case of the centric member and without considering the internal forces components from the possible effective slab widths.
With RF-/STEEL EC3, you can apply nominal temperature-time curves in RFEM or RSTAB. The standard time-temperature curve (ETK), the external fire curve and the hydrocarbon fire curve are implemented. Moreover, the program provides the option to directly specify the final temperature of steel. This steel temperature can be calculated using the parametric temperature-time curve, as described in the Annex to EN 1992‑1‑2. The different fire exposures are explained in this article.
The ASCE 7-16 standard requires both balanced and unbalanced snow load case scenarios for a structure's design consideration. While this may be more intuitive for flat or even gable/hip type roofs, the determination of snow loads is increasingly more difficult for arch roofs due to complex geometry. However, with guidance from the ASCE 7-16 on snow load calculations for curved roofs and RFEM's efficient load application tools, it's possible to consider both balanced and unbalanced snow loads for a reliable and safe structure design.
As gravity loads act on a structure, lateral displacement occurs. In turn, a secondary overturning moment is generated as the gravity load continues to act on the elements in the laterally displaced position. This effect is also known as "P-Delta (Δ)." Sect. 188.8.131.52 of the ASCE 7-16 Standard and the NBC 2015 Commentary specify when P-Delta effects should be considered during a modal response spectrum analysis.
Comparing the Stability Analysis of a Column Containing Internal Forces from Load Combinations with an Enveloping Result Combination
This example will show what you should consider when you perform column design for bending and compression with regard to the internal forces from load combinations and result combinations.
The wind, which blows parallel to the surfaces of a structure, can generate friction forces on these surfaces. This effect is mainly important for very large structures.
In accordance with Sect. 184.108.40.206.1 and Sect. 10.14.1.2 out of the ACI 318-14 and CSA A23.3-14 respectively, RFEM effectively takes into consideration concrete member and surface stiffness reduction for various element types. Available selection types include cracked and uncracked walls, flat plates and slabs, beams, and columns. The multiplier factors available within the program are taken directly from Table 220.127.116.11.1(a) and Table 10.14.1.2.
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