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  1. Figure 01 - Web Welds as Double Fillet Weld

    Design of Web Fillet Welds of Crane Girders According to EN 1993-6

    The article series about the design of crane girder welds is concluded by this article describing the design of web fillet welds, following the previous articles about the design of rail welds of crane girders at ultimate limit state and fatigue limit state. Both the ultimate limit state and the fatigue limit state are considered.

  2. Figure 01 - Notations for Connection Between Flange and Web (Source: [1])

    Downstand Beams, Ribs, T-Beams: Shear Between Web and Flanges

    In order to ensure the effects of panels, which should act as tensile or compression chords, it is necessary to connect them to the web in a shear-resistant manner. This connection is obtained in a similar way as the shear transfer in the joint between concreting sections by using the interaction between compressive struts and ties. In order to ensure the shear resistance, it must be verified that the compressive strut resistance is given and the tie force can be absorbed by the transverse reinforcement.

  3. Figure 01 - Frame Dimensions

    Determining Force Coefficient of Resulting Member Loads for Plane Lattice Structures from Wind Load

    This article presents a simple example of a lattice structure to explain how to determine wind loading as a function of the lattice solidity.

  4. Figure 01 - Structure

    Modelling Options for Composite Cross-Sections

    In RFEM, there are different options to model composite cross‑sections. In the following example, three different modelling options for a composite cross‑section, consisting of a rolled steel section HEA 300 and a rectangular cross‑section made of concrete w/l = 100/30 cm will be displayed and explained.

  5. Figure 01 - [Edit Parameters] Button in Table Toolbar

    Creating Parametric Cross-Section

    The stand-alone program SHAPE‑THIN determines characteristic values and stresses of any thin‑walled cross‑sections. Graphic tools and features allow for modelling complex cross‑section shapes. In addition to the graphical input, it is also possible to enter the data in tables. As an alternative, you can import a DXF file and use it as a basis for further modelling. Also, each cross‑section can be entered using the cross‑section library of Dlubal Software and combined as a part with the user-defined elements.

  6. Figure 01 - System and Loading

    Nonlinear Analysis in RF-/CONCRETE

    When designing reinforced concrete components according to EN 1992‑1‑1 [1], it is possible to use nonlinear calculation methods to determine internal forces for the ultimate limit state and the serviceability limit state. In this case, the internal forces and deformations are determined with respect to their nonlinear behaviour. The analysis of stresses and strains in cracked state usually provides the deflections, which clearly exceed the linearly determined values.

  7. Figure 01 - Result Diagrams of Gross Cross-Section

    Redistributing Shear Stresses from Null Elements

    SHAPE-THIN allows you to calculate section properties and stresses of any cross‑sections. If a flange or a web is weakened by bolt holes, you can consider this by using null elements. The stresses are subsequently recalculated with the reduced cross‑section values. In this case, it is necessary to pay special attention to shear stresses. By default, these are set to zero in the area of the null elements. When recalculating shear stresses with the reduced cross‑section values and without further adaptation, it turns out that the integral of the shear stresses is no longer equal to the applied shear force. The following example shows in detail how to calculate the shear stress.

  8. Figure 01 - Example

    Imperfections According to EN 1993-1-1 Clause 5.3.2: Bow Imperfection

    According to EN 1993‑1‑1 [1], it is necessary to use the equivalent geometric imperfections with values that reflect the possible effects of all types of imperfections. EN 1993‑1‑1, Clause 5.3, specifies basic imperfections for the global analysis of frames as well as member imperfections.

  9. Figure 01 - Dialog Box 'Generate Wind Loads - Vertical Walls with Roof According to ASCE/SEI 7-16'

    Generating Wind Loads on Walls and Roofs According to ASCE/SEI 7-16

    RFEM and RSTAB allow you to easily consider wind load effects on a three-dimensional building according to ASCE/SEI 7‑16 [1]. This article explains the complex theory of entering wind loads in the software. You can find the wind load under 'Tools' → 'Generate Loads' → 'From Wind Loads'.

  10. Figure 01 - Cutting Pattern of Half Sphere

    Cutting Pattern of Membranes and Cable Elements

    Cable and tensile membrane structures are regarded as very slender and aesthetic building constructions. The partly very complex double-curved shapes can be found using suitable form-finding algorithms. A possible solution is, for example, to search the form via the equilibrium between the surface stress (provided prestress and an additional load such as self-weight, pressure, etc.) and the given boundary conditions.

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