Diemersteiner Tal - Free Form, Germany
In 2019, an extraordinary pavilion was constructed in Diemersteiner Tal near Kaiserslautern, Germany. The structure is constructed entirely from timber and did not require any metal fasteners.
Technical University of Kaiserslautern, Germany
Jun. Prof. Dr. Christopher Robeller
"Digital Timber Construction DTC"
Technical University of Kaiserslautern
CLTECH GmbH & Co. KG
The pavilion is located at the Technical University of Kaiserslautern Architecture Faculty’s new timber research campus. The structure serves as the building entrance.
The structural analysis and design for this unique, one-of-a-kind building was carried out by PIRMIN JUNG. For the cross-laminated timber (CLT) surface design, as well as the connections, the engineers of PIRMIN JUNG used the RFEM finite element program. The Digital Timber Construction DTC research group at the Technical University of Kaiserslautern was headed by Jun. Prof Dr. Christopher Robeller. This group developed software to manufacture light timber CLT panel structures.
The wooden pavilion is approximately 13 ft high and spans 39 ft. Three large arched wings stem from the domed roof and connect to the foundation. The shell structure consists of 3.94-inch-thick CLT panels. Because the components are subjected to little bending and rather mainly to compression, fewer materials were required.
The pentagonal to heptagonal arch components required a mathematical algorithm. More than 200 unique geometrical surfaces about 24 in wide were created through computer calculations. These small components were manufactured from scrap pieces typically deemed as waste during the production of multi-story building wall elements.
The adjacent panels are connected with glued-in beech dowels and X-fix connectors, which are plywood dovetail-shaped timber-to-timber connectors. The X-fix connectors resist the tension and shear forces resulting from the adjacent in-plane surface displacement. They also ensure gap-free connection for the panels during assembly. The glued-in beech dowels fix the plates and transfer the transverse forces acting perpendicular to the plates.
The entire project was completed in eight short weeks, from the initial planning to the final construction. The production and assembly itself took only eight days. Load tests using six OSB panels with a height of 4.59 ft (corresponding to a weight of about 18.7 tons) were able to verify the dome’s mathematically proven high load-bearing capacity after the completion of the construction.
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In this article, the adequacy of a 2x4 dimension lumber subject to combined bi-axial bending and axial compression is verified using RF-/TIMBER AWC add-on module. The beam-column properties and loading are based on example E1.8 of AWC Structural Wood Design Examples 2015/2018.
RFEM/RSTAB add-on module RF-/TIMBER CSA | Design of members made of timber according to CSA 086 (Canadian standard)
- General stress analysis
- Graphical and numerical results of stresses and stress ratios fully integrated in RFEM
- Flexible design with different layer compositions
- High efficiency due to few entries required
- Flexibility due to detailed setting options for calculation basis and extent
- Based on the selected material model and the layers contained, a local overall stiffness matrix of the surface in RFEM is generated. The following material models are available:
- Hybrid (for combinations of material models)
- Option to save frequently used layer structures in a database
- Determination of basic, shear and equivalent stresses
- In addition to the basic stresses, the required stresses according to DIN EN 1995-1-1 and the interaction of those stresses are available as results.
- Stress analysis for structural parts of almost any shape
- Equivalent stresses calculated according to different approaches:
- Shape modification hypothesis (von Mises)
- Maximum shear stress criterion (Tresca)
- Maximum principal stress criterion (Rankine)
- Principal strain criterion (Bach)
- Calculation of transversal shear stresses according to Mindlin, Kirchhoff, or user-defined specifications
- Serviceability limit state design by checking surface displacements
- User-defined specifications of limit deflections
- Possibility to consider layer coupling
- Detailed results of individual stress components and ratios in tables and graphics
- Results of stresses for each layer in the model
- Parts list of designed surfaces
- Possible coupling of layers entirely without shear
- How does the "Orthotropic Plastic" material model work in RFEM?
- What is the meaning of the superposition according to the CQC rule in a dynamic analysis??
- Can I use RFEM to calculate a log house three-dimensionally?
- How do I display some results of all load cases in the printout report, but other results of the selected load cases only?
- I would like to carry out the flexural buckling design for timber components with imperfections and internal forces according to the second-order analysis. Is it sufficient to activate this in Details of the RF‑/TIMBER Pro add-on module or is it necessary to make additional settings?
- Can I design laminated veneer lumber with RFEM/RSTAB?
- How can I calculate a timber-concrete composite floor with cross-laminated timber?
- Is it possible to save the structures of the manufacturer-specific cross-laminated timber plates in the RF‑LAMINATE add-on module?
- How is it possible to display the main support direction graphically in RF‑LAMINATE?
- Is it possible to create a second design case in RF‑LAMINATE?
Programs Used for Structural Analysis
Structural engineering software for finite element analysis (FEA) of planar and spatial structural systems consisting of plates, walls, shells, members (beams), solids and contact elements
Timber design according to Eurocode 5, SIA 265 and/or DIN 1052
Stability analysis according to the eigenvalue method
Generation of equivalent geometric imperfections and pre-deformed initial structures for nonlinear calculations