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Wind Simulation & Wind Load Generation

With the stand-alone program RWIND Simulation, wind flows around simple or complex structures can be simulated by means of a digital wind tunnel.

The generated wind loads acting on these objects can be imported to RFEM or RSTAB.

  1. Analysis input


    • Footfall Analysis links with RFEM, using the model geometry from there, thus the user is not required to create a second model specifically for footfall analysis
    • Allows the user to analyse any type of structure for footfall analysis, irrespective of the shape, material or use
    • Quick and accurate predictions of resonant and impulsive (transient) responses
    • Cumulative measurement of vibration levels – VDV analysis
    • Intuitive output enabling the engineer to advise of improvements of critical areas in a cost-effective way
    • Pass/fail limit check in accordance with BS 6472 and ISO 10137
    • Choice of excitation forces: CCIP-016, SCI P354, AISC DG11 for floors and stairs
    • Frequency weighting curves (BS 6841)
    • Quick investigation for full model or specific areas
    • Vibration Dose Analysis (VDV)
    • Adjust the minimum and maximum walking frequency as well as the walker’s weight
    • User input damping values
    • Vary the number of footfalls for resonant response, user input or software calculated
    • Environmental response limit based on BS 6472 and ISO 10137
  2. Activated Display Option: Topology on the form-finding form

    Display of Topology on Deformed Structure

    With the activated option "Topology on form-finding shape" in the Project Navigator - Display, the model display is optimized based on the form-finding geometry. For example, the loads are displayed in relation to the deformed system.

  3. Display of Load Distribution in RFEM

    RWIND Simulation | Transfer of Wind Loads to RFEM or RSTAB




    When you start the analysis in the interface program, a batch process starts that puts all member, surface, and solid definitions of the RFEM/RSTAB model rotated with all relevant factors in the numerical RWIND Simulation wind tunnel, analyzes the model, and returns the resulting surface pressures as FE node loads or member loads to the respective load cases in RFEM and RSTAB.

    These load cases containing RWIND Simulation loads can be calculated and combined with other loads in load combinations and result combinations.

  4. RWIND Simulation | Features




    • 3D incompressible wind flow analysis with OpenFOAM® software package
    • Direct model import of RFEM or RSTAB or STL files
    • Simple model changes using Drag and Drop and graphical adjustment assistance
    • Automatic corrections of the model topology with shrink wrap networks
    • Option to add objects from the environment (buildings, terrain, ...)
    • Height-dependent velocity profiles according to the standard
    • K-epsilon and K-omega turbulence models
    • Automatic mesh generating adjusted to the selected depth of detail
    • Parallel calculation with optimal utilization of the capacity of multicore computers
    • Results in just minutes for low-resolution simulations (up to 1 million cells)
    • Results within a few hours for simulations with medium/high resolution (1-10 million cells)
    • Graphical display of results on the Clipper/Slicer planes (scalar and vector fields)
    • Graphical display of streamlines
    • Streamline animation (optional video creation)
  5. General Data for Generating RFEM/RSTAB Load Cases

    RWIND Simulation | Input




    RFEM and RSTAB have a special interface for exporting models (i.e. structures defined by members and surfaces) to RWIND Simulation. In this interface, the wind directions to be analyzed are defined by means of related angular positions about the vertical model axis, and the elevation-dependent wind profile is defined on the basis of a wind standard. Based on these specifications, you can create your own load cases for each angle setting by using fluid parameters, turbulence model properties, and iteration parameters that are all saved globally. These load cases can be extended from STL vector graphics by partial editing in the RWIND Simulation environment using terrain or environment models.

    You can also run the program RWIND Simulation manually without the interface in RFEM and RSTAB. In this case, the structures and terrain environment in RWIND Simulation are directly modeled by importing STL and VTP files. The elevation-dependent wind profile and other fluid mechanical data can be directly defined in RWIND Simulation.

  6. Considering Terrain Models in RWIND Simulation | ©

    RWIND Simulation | Calculation




    RWIND Simulation uses a numerical CFD model (Computational Fluid Dynamics) to perform wind flows around objects using a digital wind tunnel. Specific wind loads are generated from the simulation process for RFEM or RSTAB.

    A 3D solid mesh is used for the simulation. RWIND Simulation carries out an automatic meshing where it is possible to set the entire mesh density as well as the local mesh refinement on the model very easily using a few parameters. A numerical solver for incompressible turbulent flows is used to calculate the wind flows and the surface pressures on the model. The results are then extrapolated on the model. RWIND Simulation has been designed to work with different numerical solvers.

    We currently recommend using the OpenFOAM® software package, which has provided very good results in our tests and is also a frequently used tool for CFD simulations. Alternative numerical solvers are under development.

  7. Streamlines in RWIND Simulation

    RWIND Simulation | Output




    In addition to these resulting load cases in RFEM and RSTAB, more results of the aerodynamics analysis in RWIND Simulation are obtained which display the flow problem as a whole:

    • Pressure on structure surface
    • Pressure field about structure geometry
    • Velocity field about structure geometry
    • Velocity vectors about structure geometry
    • Flow lines about structure geometry
    • Forces on member-shaped structures that were originally generated from member elements
    • Convergence diagram
    • Direction and size of the flow resistance of the defined structures

    These results are displayed in the RWIND Simulation environment and evaluated graphically. Since the flow results about the structure geometry are confusing in the overall display, you can see freely movable section planes for the separate display of the "solid results" in a plane. Accordingly, in the 3D branched streamline result, an animated display in the form of moving lines or particles is shown in addition to a structural representation. This option helps to represent the wind flow as a dynamic effect.

    All results can be exported as a picture or, especially for the animated results, as a video.

  8. "Show Preliminary Form-Finding" Function in the Shortcut Menu

    Automatic Preliminary Form-Finding of Membrane Surfaces

    Activating the "Display shape" option in the shortcut menu leads to an automatic preliminary form-finding according to the saved form-finding properties when you change the structure of membrane surfaces. This interactive graphics mode is based on the force density method.

  9. Export Option " Update only materials, thicknesses, and sections

    Updating the Revit Model

    The direct interface with Revit allows you to update the Revit model according to the changes you have made in RFEM or RSTAB. Depending on the modification, the Revit objects may have to be regenerated (deleting the object and subsequent regeneration). The regeneration is performed on the basis of the RFEM/RSTAB model.

    If you want to avoid this regeneration, activate the option "Update only materials, thicknesses, and sections." In this case, only the properties of the objects will be adjusted. Changes differing in material, surface thickness, and section are, however, not considered in this case.

  10. Defining 2 FE Mesh Layers for One Gas Solid

    Considering the Stiffness of Gas Solids in Nonlinear Time History Analysis

    The stiffness of gas given by the ideal gas law pV = nRT can be considered in the nonlinear dynamic analysis.

    The calculation of gas is available for accelerograms and time diagrams for both the explicit analysis and the nonlinear implicit Newmark analysis. To determine the gas behaviour correctly, at least two FE layers for gas solids should be defined.

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