How are the signs of the member moments defined?


The bending moment My is positive if tensile stresses occur at the positive member face (in the direction of the z axis). Mz is positive if compressive stresses occur at the positive member face (in the direction of the y axis).

The sign definition for torsional moments, axial forces, and shear forces conforms to the usual conventions: the internal forces are positive if they act in the positive direction at the positive face. 


internal force member internal force moment sign negative positive shear force bending moment

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