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  1. Figure 01 - Check box "Number of load increments" in the Calculation Parameters

    Automatic Determination of Number of Load Increments

    If the check box "Number of load increments" is deactivated, the number of load increments will be determined automatically in RFEM to solve nonlinear tasks efficiently. The method used is based on a heuristic algorithm.
  2. Figure 01 - Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    With this function, it is possible to refine the FE mesh on surfaces automatically. The mesh refinement is carried out step by step. In each step, a new FE mesh according to the numeric error analysis of the previous step will be generated. The numeric error will be evaluated by means of the results on surface elements and is based on the energy formulation by Zienkiewicz-Zhu.
    The error analysis is carried out for a linear static analysis. A load case (or a load combination) is selected for which the FE mesh will be generated. The FE mesh will be used for all calculations.
  3. Figure 01 - Display of pushover curve in the calculation diagrams in RF-DYNAM Pro

    Pushover Analysis

    In RFEM, it is possible to determine pushover curves (also called capacity curves) and export them to Excel.
  4. Parameters of National Annex

    RF-/JOINTS Timber - Timber to Timber | Design

    The following design results are displayed:

    • Check of the minimum spacing between screws
    • Load carrying capacity of each screw
  5. Figure 01 - Selecting the nonlinear analysis in RF-DYNAM Pro - Nonlinear Time History

    RF-/DYNAM Pro - Nonlinear Time History | Calculation

    Calculation in RFEM
    The nonlinear time history analysis is performed with the implicit Newmark analysis or the explicit analysis. Both are the direct time integration methods. The implicit analysis requires small time steps to provide precise results. The explicit analysis determines the required time step automatically to provide the stability to the solution. The explicit analysis is suitable for the analysis of short excitations, such as impulse excitation, or an explosion.

    Calculation in RSTAB
    The nonlinear time history analysis is performed with the explicit analysis. This is a direct time integration method and determines the required time step automatically in order to provide the solution stability.

  6. Figure 01 - Time course monitor (temporary failure of tension member due to vibration stress)

    RF-/DYNAM Pro - Nonlinear Time History | Results

    Due to the integration of RF‑/DYNAM Pro in RFEM or RSTAB, you can incorporate numeric and graphic results from RF‑/DYNAM Pro - Forced Vibrations to the global printout report. Also, all RFEM and RSTAB options are available for a graphical visualization. The results of the time history analysis are displayed in a time course monitor.

    All results are plotted versus time. You can export the numeric values to MS Excel. It is possible to export the result combinations by exporting the results of the individual time steps or filtering the most unfavourable results of all time steps.

  7. Calculation parameters

    RF-FORM-FINDING | Calculation

    After starting the calculation, the program performs form‑finding on the entire structure. The calculation takes into account the interaction between the form‑found elements and the supporting structure.

    The form-finding process is performed iteratively as a special nonlinear analysis, inspired by URS (Updated Reference Strategy) by Prof. Bletzinger / Prof. Ramm. In this way, shapes in equilibrium are obtained considering the pre‑defined prestress.

    Furthermore, this method allows you to consider the individual loads such as self‑weight or interior pressure for pneumatic structures in the form‑finding process. The prestress for surfaces can be defined by two different methods:

    • Standard method - prescription of required prestress in a surface
    • Projection method - prescription of required prestress in a projection of a surface, stabilization especially for conical shapes
  8. RF-CUTTING-PATTERN | Calculation

    The nonlinear calculation adopts the real mesh geometry of planar, buckled, simple curved, or double curved surface components from the selected cutting pattern and flattens this surface component in compliance with the minimization of distortion energy, assuming defined material behaviour.

    Basically, this method attempts to compress the mesh geometry in a press assuming frictionless contact and to find such a state where the stresses due to flattening the component in the plane are in equilibrium. In this way, the minimum energy and the optimum accuracy of the cutting pattern are achieved. Compensation for warp and weft as well as compensation for boundary lines are considered. Then, the defined allowances on boundary lines are applied to the resulting planar surface geometry.

    • Minimization of distortion energy in the flattening process for very accurate cutting patterns
    • Application for almost all mesh arrangements
    • Recognition of adjacent cutting pattern definitions to keep the same length
    • Mesh application for main calculation
  9. Graphical display of mode shape of set of members

    RF-/STEEL EC3 | Design

    When performing design of tension, compression, bending, and shear loading, the module compares design values of the maximum load capacity with the design values of actions.

    If the components are subjected to both bending and compression, the program performs an interaction. RF-/STEEL EC3 provides options for determining interaction formulas by factors of the first method (Annex A) or the second method (Annex B).

    The flexural buckling design, requires neither the slenderness nor the elastic critical buckling load of the governing buckling case. The module automatically determines all required factors for the design value of the bending load and the ideal elastic critical moment for each member on every x-location of the cross-section. If required, you only need to specify lateral intermediate supports of the individual members/sets of members, definable in one of the input windows.

    If members are selected for the fire resistance design in RF-/STEEL EC3, there is another input window available where you can enter additional parameters such as types of coating or covers. Global settings covers required time of fire resistance, temperature curve, and other coefficients. The printout report lists all intermediate results and the final result of the fire resistance design. Furthermore, it is possible to print the temperature curve in the report.

  10. Steel design in RFEM without (left) and with (right) RF-STEEL Plasticity

    RF-/STEEL Plasticity | Design and Results

    The cross-section resistance design considers all internal force combinations.

    If cross-sections are designed according to the PIF method, the internal forces of the cross-section, which are acting in the system of the principal axes related to the centroid or the shear center, are transformed into a local system of coordinates that rests in the web center and is oriented in the web direction.

    The individual internal forces are distributed on the top and bottom flange as well as on the web and the limit internal forces of the cross‑section parts are determined. Provided that the shear stresses and the flange moments can be absorbed, the axial load bearing capacity and the ultimate load capacity for bending of the cross‑section are determined by means of the remaining internal forces and compared with the existing force and moment. If the shear stress or the flange resistance is exceeded, the design cannot be performed.

    The Simplex Method determines the plastic enlargement factor with the relevant internal force combination using the SHAPE‑THIN calculation. The reciprocal value of the enlargement factor represents the design ratio of the cross‑section.

    Elliptical cross-sections are analyzed for their plastic load‑bearing capacity on the basis of an analytical nonlinear optimization procedure which is similar to the Simplex Method. Separate design cases allow for flexible analysis of selected members, sets of members, and actions as well as of individual cross‑sections.

    You can adjust design-relevant parameters such as calculation of all cross‑sections according to the Simplex Method.

    The results of the plastic design are displayed in RF‑/STEEL EC3 as usual. The respective result tables include internal forces, cross‑section classes, overall design, and other result data.

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