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  1. Figure 01 - Effective Cross-Section in SHAPE-THIN 8

    Calculation of stiffened buckling panels according to EN 1993-1-5, 4.5

    In SHAPE-THIN 8, the effective cross-section of stiffened buckling panels can be calculated according to EN 1993-1-5, Cl. 4.5. The critical buckling stress is calculated according to EN 1993-1-5, Annex A.1 for buckling panels with at least 3 longitudinal stiffeners or according to EN 1993-1-5, Annex A.2 for buckling panels with one or two stiffeners in the compression zone. The design for torsional buckling safety is also performed.
  2. Figure 01 - Determination of Rayleigh Damping in RF-/DYNAM Pro - Forced Vibrations

    Conversion of Lehr's Damping into Rayleigh Damping

    Calculation in consideration of a damping (Lehr's damping as well) is not possible in the direct time step integrations. Instead, the Rayleigh damping coefficients are specified by the user.

    In technical literature, the given damping for specific construction forms is in many cases only a rough approximation of the real damping ratios. In RF-/DYNAM Pro - Forced Vibrations, it is possible to use the damping value to determine the Rayleigh damping. This may occur at one or two natural angular frequencies defined by the user.

  3. Figure 01 - Check box "Number of load increments" in the Calculation Parameters

    Automatic Determination of Number of Load Increments

    If the check box "Number of load increments" is deactivated, the number of load increments will be determined automatically in RFEM to solve nonlinear tasks efficiently. The method used is based on a heuristic algorithm.
  4. Figure 01 - Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    With this function, it is possible to refine the FE mesh on surfaces automatically. The mesh refinement is carried out step by step. In each step, a new FE mesh according to the numeric error analysis of the previous step will be generated. The numeric error will be evaluated by means of the results on surface elements and is based on the energy formulation by Zienkiewicz-Zhu.
    The error analysis is carried out for a linear static analysis. A load case (or a load combination) is selected for which the FE mesh will be generated. The FE mesh will be used for all calculations.
  5. Figure 01 - Display of pushover curve in the calculation diagrams in RF-DYNAM Pro

    Pushover Analysis

    In RFEM, it is possible to determine pushover curves (also called capacity curves) and export them to Excel.
  6. Parameters of National Annex

    RF-/JOINTS Timber - Timber to Timber | Design

    The following design results are displayed:

    • Check of the minimum spacing between screws
    • Load carrying capacity of each screw
  7. Figure 01 - Selecting the nonlinear analysis in RF-DYNAM Pro - Nonlinear Time History

    RF-/DYNAM Pro - Nonlinear Time History | Calculation

    Calculation in RFEM
    The nonlinear time history analysis is performed with the implicit Newmark analysis or the explicit analysis. Both are the direct time integration methods. The implicit analysis requires small time steps to provide precise results. The explicit analysis determines the required time step automatically to provide the stability to the solution. The explicit analysis is suitable for the analysis of short excitations, such as impulse excitation, or an explosion.

    Calculation in RSTAB
    The nonlinear time history analysis is performed with the explicit analysis. This is a direct time integration method and determines the required time step automatically in order to provide the solution stability.

  8. Figure 01 - Time course monitor (temporary failure of tension member due to vibration stress)

    RF-/DYNAM Pro - Nonlinear Time History | Results

    Due to the integration of RF‑/DYNAM Pro in RFEM or RSTAB, you can incorporate numeric and graphic results from RF‑/DYNAM Pro - Forced Vibrations to the global printout report. Also, all RFEM and RSTAB options are available for a graphical visualization. The results of the time history analysis are displayed in a time course monitor.

    All results are plotted versus time. You can export the numeric values to MS Excel. It is possible to export the result combinations by exporting the results of the individual time steps or filtering the most unfavourable results of all time steps.

  9. Calculation parameters

    RF-FORM-FINDING | Calculation

    After starting the calculation, the program performs form‑finding on the entire structure. The calculation takes into account the interaction between the form‑found elements and the supporting structure.

    The form-finding process is performed iteratively as a special nonlinear analysis, inspired by URS (Updated Reference Strategy) by Prof. Bletzinger / Prof. Ramm. In this way, shapes in equilibrium are obtained considering the pre‑defined prestress.

    Furthermore, this method allows you to consider the individual loads such as self‑weight or interior pressure for pneumatic structures in the form‑finding process. The prestress for surfaces can be defined by two different methods:

    • Standard method - prescription of required prestress in a surface
    • Projection method - prescription of required prestress in a projection of a surface, stabilization especially for conical shapes
  10. RF-CUTTING-PATTERN | Calculation

    The nonlinear calculation adopts the real mesh geometry of planar, buckled, simple curved, or double curved surface components from the selected cutting pattern and flattens this surface component in compliance with the minimization of distortion energy, assuming defined material behaviour.

    Basically, this method attempts to compress the mesh geometry in a press assuming frictionless contact and to find such a state where the stresses due to flattening the component in the plane are in equilibrium. In this way, the minimum energy and the optimum accuracy of the cutting pattern are achieved. Compensation for warp and weft as well as compensation for boundary lines are considered. Then, the defined allowances on boundary lines are applied to the resulting planar surface geometry.

    Features:
    • Minimization of distortion energy in the flattening process for very accurate cutting patterns
    • Application for almost all mesh arrangements
    • Recognition of adjacent cutting pattern definitions to keep the same length
    • Mesh application for main calculation

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