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Wind Simulation & Wind Load Generation

With the stand-alone program RWIND Simulation, wind flows around simple or complex structures can be simulated by means of a digital wind tunnel.

The generated wind loads acting on these objects can be imported to RFEM or RSTAB.

  • Effective Cross-Section of a Cold-Formed Z-Section in SHAPE-THIN 9

    SHAPE-THIN | Cold-Formed Sections

    SHAPE-THIN determines the effective cross-sections according to EN 1993-1-3 and EN 1993-1-5 for cold-formed sections. You can optionally check the geometric conditions for the applicability of the standard specified in EN 1993‑1‑3, Section 5.2.

    The effects of local plate buckling are considered according to the method of reduced widths and the possible buckling of stiffeners (instability) is considered for stiffened sections according to EN 1993-1-3, Section 5.5.

    As an option, you can perform an iterative calculation to optimize the effective cross-section.

    You can display the effective cross-sections graphically.

    Read more about designing cold-formed sections with SHAPE-THIN and RF-/STEEL Cold-Formed Sections in this technical article: Design of a Thin-Walled, Cold-Formed C-Section According to EN 1993-1-3.

  • RF-/JOINTS Steel - Rigid | Input

    After starting the module, the joint group (rigid joints) is selected first, followed by joint category and joint type (rigid end plate connection or rigid splice plate connection). The nodes to be designed are then selected from the RFEM/RSTAB model. RF-/JOINTS Steel - Rigid automatically recognizes the joint members and determines from its location whether they are columns or beams. The user can intervene here.

    If certain members are to be excluded from the calculation, they can be deactivated. Structurally similar connections can be designed for several nodes at the same time. The governing load cases, load combinations or result combinations have to be selected for the loading. Alternatively, you can enter the cross‑section and load data manually. The joint is configured step by step in the last input table.

  • RF-/JOINTS Steel - Rigid | Design

    The design is carried out according to EN 1993-1-8 and EN 1993-1-1. It is assumed that the internal forces are directly located in the defined node. In case of beam-column connections, additional eccentricities thus appear to the connection level which have to be considered in the calculation. Besides the design of the sufficient ultimate limit state of the connection, a calculation and classification of the connection with regard to stiffness is performed.
  • Results

    Result windows list details of all calculation results. Moreover, a 3D graphic is created where it is possible to show and hide single components as well as dimension lines and, for example, weld data.
    The summary shows whether or not the individual designs have been fulfilled. In addition, the node number and the governing load case or the governing load/result combination are indicated.

    When selecting a design, the module shows the detailed intermediate results including the actions and the additional internal forces from the connection geometry. Moreover, there is the option to display the results by load case and by node. The connections are represented in a realistic 3D rendering possible to scale. In addition to the main views, it is possible to show the graphics from any perspective.

    You can add the graphics with dimensions and labels to the RFEM/RSTAB printout or export them as DXF. The printout report includes all input and result data prepared for test engineers. It is possible to export all tables to MS Excel or as a CSV file. A special transfer menu defines all specifications required for the export.

  • RF-/JOINTS Steel - Rigid | Features

    • Beam to Column joint category: connection possible as joint of the beam to the column flange as well as joint of the column to the girder flange
    • Beam to Beam joint category: design of beam joints as both moment resisting end plate connections and rigid splice connection
    • Automatic export of model and load data possible from RFEM or RSTAB
    • Bolt sizes from M12 to M36 with the strength grades 4.6, 4.8, 5.6, 5.8, 6.8, 8.8 und 10.9 as long as the strength grades are available in the selected National Annex
    • Almost any bolt spacing and edge distances (a check of the allowable distances is performed)
    • Beam strengthening with tapers or stiffeners on the top and bottom surface
    • End plate connection with and without overlap
    • Connection with pure bending stress, pure normal force load (tension joint) or combination of normal force and bending possible
    • Calculation of connection stiffnesses and check if a hinged, semi-rigid or rigid connection exists
    End plate connection in a beam-column setup
    • Joint beams or columns can be stiffened with tapers on one side or with stiffeners to one or both sides
    • Wide range of possible stiffeners of the connection (e.g. complete or incomplete web stiffeners)
    • Up to ten horizontal and four vertical bolts possible
    • Connected object possible as constant or tapered I-section
    • Designs:
      • Ultimate limit state of the connected beam (such as shear or tension resistance of the web plate)
      • Ultimate limit state of the end plate at the beam (e.g. T-stub under tensile stress)
      • Ultimate limit state of the welds at the end plate
      • Ultimate limit state of the column in the area of the connection (e.g. column flange under bending – T-stub)
      • All designs are performed according to EN 1993-1-8 and EN 1993-1-1 
    Moment resisting end plate joint
    • Two or four vertical and up to 10 horizontal bolt rows
    • Joint beams can be stiffened with tapers on one side or with stiffeneres to one or both sides
    • Connected objects are possible as constant or tapered I-sections
    • Designs: 
      • Ultimate limit state of the connected beams (such as shear or tension resistance of the web plates)
      • Ultimate limit state of the end plates at the beam (e.g. T-stub under tensile stress)
      • Ultimate limit state of the welds at the end plates
      • Ultimate limit state of the bolts in the end plate (combination of tension and shear)
    Rigid splice plate connection
    • For the flange plate connection, up to ten bolt rows one behind the other possible
    • For the web plate connection, up to ten bolt rows possible each in vertical and horizontal direction
    • Material of the cleat can be different from the one of the beams
    • Designs:
      • Ultimate limit state of the joint beams (e.g. net cross-section in the tension area)
      • Ultimate limit state of the cleat plates (e.g. net cross-section under tensile stress)
      • Ultimate limit state of the single bolts and the bolt groups (e.g. shear resistance design of the single bolt)
  • Effective Cross-Section in SHAPE-THIN 8

    Calculation of Stiffened Buckling Panels According to EN 1993-1-5, 4.5

    In SHAPE-THIN 8, the effective cross-section of stiffened buckling panels can be calculated according to EN 1993-1-5, Cl. 4.5.

    The critical buckling stress is calculated according to EN 1993-1-5, Annex A.1 for buckling panels with at least 3 longitudinal stiffeners or according to EN 1993-1-5, Annex A.2 for buckling panels with one or two stiffeners in the compression zone. The design for torsional buckling safety is also performed.

  • RF-/STEEL EC3 | Features

    • Import of materials, cross-sections, and internal forces from RFEM/RSTAB
    • Steel design of thin‑walled cross‑sections according to EN 1993‑1‑1:2005 and EN 1993‑1‑5:2006
    • Automatic classification of cross-sections according to EN 1993-1-1:2005 + AC:2009, Cl. 5.5.2, and EN 1993-1-5:2006, Cl. 4.4 (cross-section class 4), with optional determination of effective widths according to Annex E for stresses under fy
    • Integration of parameters for the following National Annexes:
      • Deutschland DIN EN 1993-1-1/NA: 2015-08 (Germany)
      • ÖNORM B 1993-1-1: 2007-02 (Austria)
      • NBN EN 1993-1-1/ANB: 2010-12 (Belgium)
      • BDS EN 1993-1-1/NA: 2008 (Bulgaria)
      • DS/EN 1993-1-1 DK NA: 2015 (Denmark)
      • SFS EN 1993-1-1/NA: 2005 (Finland)
      • NF EN 1993-1-1/NA: 2007-05 (France)
      • Griechenland ELOT EN 1993-1-1 (Greece)
      • UNI EN 1993-1-1/NA: 2008 (Italy)
      • LST EN 1993-1-1/NA: 2009-04 (Lithuania)
      • LU EN 1993-1-1: 2005/AN-LU: 2011 (Luxembourg)
      • MS EN 1993-1-1/NA: 2010 (Malaysia)
      • NEN EN 1993-1-1/NA: 2011-12 (Netherlands)
      • Norway NS EN 1993-1-1/NA: 2008-02 (Norway)
      • PN EN 1993-1-1/NA: 2006-06 (Poland)
      • NP EN 1993-1-1/NA: 2010-03 (Portugal)
      • SR EN 1993-1-1/NB: 2008-04 (Romania)
      • SS EN 1993-1-1/NA: 2011-04 (Sweden)
      • SS EN 1993-1-1/NA: 2010 (Singapore)
      • STN EN 1993-1-1/NA: 2007-12 (Slovakia)
      • SIST EN 1993-1-1/A101: 2006-03 (Slovenia)
      • UNE EN 1993-1-1/NA: 2013-02 (Spain)
      • CSN EN 1993-1-1/NA: 2007-05 (Czech Republic)
      • BS EN 1993-1-1/NA: 2008-12 (United Kingdom)
      • CYS EN 1993-1-1/NA: 2009-03 (Cyprus)
    In addition to the National Annexes (NA) listed above, you can also define a specific NA, applying user-defined limit values and parameters.
    • Automatic calculation of all required factors for the design value of flexural buckling resistance N b, Rd
    • Automatic determination of the ideal elastic critical moment Mcr for each member or set of members on every x-location according to the Eigenvalue Method or by comparing moment diagrams. You only have to define the lateral intermediate supports.
    • Design of tapered members, unsymmetric sections or sets of members according to the General Method as described in EN 1993-1-1, Cl. 6.3.4
    • In the case of the General Method according to Cl. 6.3.4, optional application of 'European lateral-torsional buckling curve' according to Naumes, Strohmann, Ungermann, Sedlacek (Stahlbau 77 (2008), p. 748‑761)
    • Rotational restraints can be taken into account (trapezoidal sheeting and purlins)
    • Optional consideration of shear panels (for example trapezoidal sheeting and bracing)
    • Module extension RF-/STEEL Warping Torsion (the licence is required) for stability analysis according to the second‑order theory as stress analysis, including consideration of the 7th degree of freedom (warping)
    • Module extension RF-/STEEL Plasticity (the licence is required) for plastic analysis of cross‑sections according to Partial Internal Forces Method (PIFM) and Simplex Method for general cross‑sections (in connection with the RF‑/STEEL Warping Torsion module extension, it is possible to perform the plastic design according to the second‑order analysis)
    • Module extension RF-/STEEL Cold-Formed Sections (license required) for ultimate and serviceability limit state designs for cold-formed steel members according to the EN 1993-1-3 and EN 1993-1-5 standards
    • ULS design: Selection of fundamental or accidental design situations for each load case, load combination, or result combination
    • SLS design: Selection of characteristic, frequent, or quasi-permanent design situations for each load case, load combination, or result combination
    • Tension analysis with definable net cross-section areas for member start and end
    • Weld designs of welded cross-sections
    • Optional calculation of warp spring for nodal support on sets of members
    • Graphic of design ratios on cross-section and in RFEM/RSTAB model
    • Determination of governing internal forces
    • Filter options for graphical results in RFEM/RSTAB
    • Representation of design ratios and cross‑section classes in the rendered view
    • Color scales in result windows
    • Automatic cross-section optimization
    • Transfer of optimized cross-sections to RFEM/RSTAB
    • Parts lists and quantity surveying
    • Direct data export to MS Excel
    • Verifiable printout report
    • Possibility to include the temperature curve in the report
  • RF-/STEEL EC3 | Design

    When performing design of tension, compression, bending, and shear loading, the module compares design values of the maximum load capacity with the design values of actions.

    If the components are subjected to both bending and compression, the program performs an interaction. RF-/STEEL EC3 provides options for determining interaction formulas by factors of the first method (Annex A) or the second method (Annex B).

    The flexural buckling design, requires neither the slenderness nor the elastic critical buckling load of the governing buckling case. The module automatically determines all required factors for the design value of the bending load and the ideal elastic critical moment for each member on every x-location of the cross-section. If required, you only need to specify lateral intermediate supports of the individual members/sets of members, definable in one of the input windows.

    If members are selected for the fire resistance design in RF-/STEEL EC3, there is another input window available where you can enter additional parameters such as types of coating or covers. Global settings covers required time of fire resistance, temperature curve, and other coefficients. The printout report lists all intermediate results and the final result of the fire resistance design. Furthermore, it is possible to print the temperature curve in the report.

  • RF-/STEEL EC3 | Results

    The results sorted by load case, cross-section, member, set of members, or x-location are displayed in clearly arranged result windows. By selecting the corresponding table row, detailed information about the performed design is displayed.

    The results include a comprehensible list of all material and cross-section properties, design internal forces, and design factors. Furthermore, it is possible to display distribution of internal forces of each x-location in a separate graphic window.

    Parts lists by member/by set of members for the individual cross-section types complete the detailed and structured result presentation. To print the input and result data, you can use the global RFEM/RSTAB printout report.

    For further processing of various data, it is possible to export all tables to MS Excel.

  • RF-/STEEL Plasticity | Design and Results

    The cross-section resistance design considers all internal force combinations.

    If cross-sections are designed according to the PIF method, the internal forces of the cross-section, which are acting in the system of the principal axes related to the centroid or the shear center, are transformed into a local system of coordinates that rests in the web center and is oriented in the web direction.

    The individual internal forces are distributed on the top and bottom flange as well as on the web and the limit internal forces of the cross‑section parts are determined. Provided that the shear stresses and the flange moments can be absorbed, the axial load bearing capacity and the ultimate load capacity for bending of the cross‑section are determined by means of the remaining internal forces and compared with the existing force and moment. If the shear stress or the flange resistance is exceeded, the design cannot be performed.

    The Simplex Method determines the plastic enlargement factor with the relevant internal force combination using the SHAPE‑THIN calculation. The reciprocal value of the enlargement factor represents the design ratio of the cross‑section.

    Elliptical cross-sections are analyzed for their plastic load‑bearing capacity on the basis of an analytical nonlinear optimization procedure. This method is similar to the Simplex Method. Separate design cases enable flexible analysis of selected members, sets of members, and actions as well as of individual cross‑sections.

    You can adjust design-relevant parameters such as calculation of all cross‑sections according to the Simplex Method.

    The results of the plastic design are displayed in RF‑/STEEL EC3 as usual. The respective result tables include internal forces, cross‑section classes, overall design, and other result data.

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