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  1. Figure 01 - Effective Cross-Section in SHAPE-THIN 8

    Calculation of stiffened buckling panels according to EN 1993-1-5, 4.5

    In SHAPE-THIN 8, the effective cross-section of stiffened buckling panels can be calculated according to EN 1993-1-5, Cl. 4.5. The critical buckling stress is calculated according to EN 1993-1-5, Annex A.1 for buckling panels with at least 3 longitudinal stiffeners or according to EN 1993-1-5, Annex A.2 for buckling panels with one or two stiffeners in the compression zone. The design for torsional buckling safety is also performed.
  2. RF-/STEEL EC3 | Features

    • Import of materials, cross-sections, and internal forces from RFEM/RSTAB
    • Steel design of thin‑walled cross‑sections according to EN 1993‑1‑1:2005 and EN 1993‑1‑5:2006
    • Automatic classification of cross-sections according to EN 1993-1-1:2005 + AC:2009, Cl. 5.5.2, and EN 1993-1-5:2006, Cl. 4.4 (cross-section class 4), with optional determination of effective widths according to Annex E for stresses under fy
    • Integration of parameters for the following National Annexes:
      • United Kingdom BS EN 1993-1-1/NA:2008-12 (United Kingdom)
      •  ÖNORM 1993-1-1:2007-02 (Austria)
      • Belgium NBN EN 1993-1-1/ANB:2010-12 (Belgium)
      • Bulgaria BLG EN 1993-1-1/NA:2008 (Bulgaria)
      • Cyprus CYS EN 1993-1-1/NA:2009-03 (Cyprus)
      •  CSN EN 1993-1-1/NA.ed:2007-05 (Czech Republic)
      •  DS/EN 1993-1-1 DK NA:2015 (Denmark)
      •  SFS EN 1993-1-1:2005 (Finland)
      •  NF EN 1993-1-1/NA:2007-05 (France)
      •  DIN EN 1993-1-1/NA:2015‑08 (Germany)
      • Greece ELOT EN 1993-1-1 (Greece)
      •  UNI EN 1993-1-1/NA:2008 (Italy)
      •  LST EN 1993-1-1/NA:2009-04 (Lithuania)
      •  LU EN 1993‑1‑1:2005/AN‑LU:2011 (Luxembourg)
      •  MS EN 1993-1-1:2010 (Malaysia)
      •  NEN EN 1993-1-1/NA:2011-12 (Netherlands)
      •  NS EN 1993-1-1/NA:2008-02 (Norway)
      •  PN EN 1993-1-1:2006-06 (Poland)
      •  NP EN 1993-1-1/NA:2010-03 (Portugal)
      •  SR EN 1993-1-1:2006/NA:2008-04 (Romania)
      •  SS EN 1993-1-1/NA:2010 (Singapore)
      •  STN EN 1993-1-1/NA:2007-12 (Slovakia)
      •  SIST-EN 1993-1-1/NA:2006-03 (Slovenia)
      •  UNE EN 1993-1-1:2013-02 (Spain)
      •  SS EN 1993-1-1/NA:2011-04 (Sweden)

    In addition to the National Annexes (NA) listed above, you can also define a specific NA, applying user-defined limit values and parameters.

    • Automatic calculation of all required factors for the design value of the flexural buckling resistance Nb,Rd
    • Automatic determination of the ideal elastic critical moment Mcr for each member or set of members on every x-location according to the Eigenvalue Method or by comparing moment diagrams. You only have to define the lateral intermediate supports.
    • Design of tapered members, unsymmetric sections or sets of members according to the General Method as described in EN 1993-1-1, Cl. 6.3.4
    • In the case of the General Method according to Cl. 6.3.4, optional application of 'European lateral-torsional buckling curve' according to Naumes, Strohmann, Ungermann, Sedlacek (Stahlbau 77 (2008), p. 748‑761)
    • Rotational restraints can be taken into account (trapezoidal sheeting and purlins)
    • Optional consideration of shear panels (trapezoidal sheeting and bracing)
    • Module extension RF-/STEEL Warping Torsion (the licence is required) for stability analysis according to the second‑order theory as stress analysis, including consideration of 7th degree of freedom (warping)
    • Module extension RF-/STEEL Plasticity (the licence is required) for plastic analysis of cross‑sections according to Partial Internal Forces Method (PIFM) and Simplex Method for general cross‑sections (in connection with the RF‑/STEEL Warping Torsion module extension, it is possible to perform the plastic design according to the second‑order analysis)
    • ULS design: Selection of fundamental or accidental design situations for each load case, load combination, or result combination
    • SLS design: Selection of characteristic, frequent, or quasi-permanent design situations for each load case, load combination, or result combination
    • Tension analysis with definable net cross-section areas for member start and end
    • Weld designs of welded cross-sections
    • Optional calculation of warp spring for nodal support on sets of members
    • Graphic of design ratios on cross-section and in RFEM/RSTAB model
    • Determination of governing internal forces
    • Filter options for graphical results in RFEM/RSTAB
    • Representation of design ratios and cross‑section classes in the rendered view
    • Color scales in result windows
    • View mode for view adjustment in the work window
    • Automatic cross-section optimization
    • Transfer of optimized cross-sections to RFEM/RSTAB
    • Parts list and quantity surveying
    • Direct data export to MS Excel
    • Verifiable printout report
    • Possibility to include the temperature curve in the report
  3. Graphical display of mode shape of set of members

    RF-/STEEL EC3 | Design

    When performing design of tension, compression, bending, and shear loading, the module compares design values of the maximum load capacity with the design values of actions.

    If the components are subjected to both bending and compression, the program performs an interaction. RF-/STEEL EC3 provides options for determining interaction formulas by factors of the first method (Annex A) or the second method (Annex B).

    The flexural buckling design, requires neither the slenderness nor the elastic critical buckling load of the governing buckling case. The module automatically determines all required factors for the design value of the bending load and the ideal elastic critical moment for each member on every x-location of the cross-section. If required, you only need to specify lateral intermediate supports of the individual members/sets of members, definable in one of the input windows.

    If members are selected for the fire resistance design in RF-/STEEL EC3, there is another input window available where you can enter additional parameters such as types of coating or covers. Global settings covers required time of fire resistance, temperature curve, and other coefficients. The printout report lists all intermediate results and the final result of the fire resistance design. Furthermore, it is possible to print the temperature curve in the report.

  4. Graphical results evaluation

    RF-/STEEL EC3 | Results

    The results sorted by load case, cross-section, member, set of members, or x-location are displayed in clearly arranged result windows. By selecting the corresponding table row, detailed information about the performed design is displayed.

    The results include a comprehensible list of all material and cross-section properties, design internal forces, and design factors. Furthermore, it is possible to display distribution of internal forces of each x-location in a separate graphic window.

    Parts lists by member/by set of members for the individual cross-section types complete the detailed and structures result presentation. To print the input and result data, you can use the global RFEM/RSTAB printout report.

    For further processing of various data, it is possible to export all tables to MS Excel.

  5. Steel design in RFEM without (left) and with (right) RF-STEEL Plasticity

    RF-/STEEL Plasticity | Design and Results

    The cross-section resistance design considers all internal force combinations.

    If cross-sections are designed according to the PIF method, the internal forces of the cross-section, which are acting in the system of the principal axes related to the centroid or the shear center, are transformed into a local system of coordinates that rests in the web center and is oriented in the web direction.

    The individual internal forces are distributed on the top and bottom flange as well as on the web and the limit internal forces of the cross‑section parts are determined. Provided that the shear stresses and the flange moments can be absorbed, the axial load bearing capacity and the ultimate load capacity for bending of the cross‑section are determined by means of the remaining internal forces and compared with the existing force and moment. If the shear stress or the flange resistance is exceeded, the design cannot be performed.

    The Simplex Method determines the plastic enlargement factor with the relevant internal force combination using the SHAPE‑THIN calculation. The reciprocal value of the enlargement factor represents the design ratio of the cross‑section.

    Elliptical cross-sections are analyzed for their plastic load‑bearing capacity on the basis of an analytical nonlinear optimization procedure which is similar to the Simplex Method. Separate design cases allow for flexible analysis of selected members, sets of members, and actions as well as of individual cross‑sections.

    You can adjust design-relevant parameters such as calculation of all cross‑sections according to the Simplex Method.

    The results of the plastic design are displayed in RF‑/STEEL EC3 as usual. The respective result tables include internal forces, cross‑section classes, overall design, and other result data.

  6. SHAPE-THIN | Features

    • Modeling of the cross-section via elements, sections, arcs and point elements
    • Expandable library of material properties, yield strengths, and limit stresses
    • Section properties of open, closed or non-connected cross-sections
    • Effective properties of cross-sections consisting of different materials
    • Determination of weld stresses in fillet welds
    • Stress analysis including design of primary and secondary torsion
    • Check of (c/t) ratios
    • Effective cross-sections according to
      •  EN 1993-1-5
      •  EN 1999-1-1
      •  DIN 18800-2
    • Classification according to
      •  EN 1993-1-1
      •  EN 1999-1-1
    • Interface with MS Excel to import and export tables
    • Printout report
  7. RF-/JOINTS Steel - Pinned | Features

    • Beam to Column joint category: connection possible on the column flange as well as on the column web
    • Beam to Beam joint category: optional arrangement of ribs on the opposite side
    • Bolt sizes from M12 to M36 with the strength grades 4.6, 5.6, 8.8, and 10.9
    • Arbitrary bolt hole spacing and edge distances
    • Notching of beam is possible
    • Connection with pure shear loading, pure normal force load (tension joint), or possible combination of normal and shear force
    • Checking compliance with the requirements for pinned joints
    • Check of the minimum and maximum bolt hole spacing and edge distances

    Web cleat connections
    • At each leg, one or two vertical, and up to 10 horizontal bolt rows
    • Wide range of equal and unequal angles
    • Angle orientation possible to modify
    • Designs:
      • Shear, bearing resistance and tension design of bolts
      • Shear, bending and tension design of angles considering deduction of bolt hole
      • Shear and tension design of girder web considering deduction of bolt hole
      • Tension transmission into the column with the T-stub-model
      • Notching at the critical section
    Fin plate connection
    • One or two vertical and up to 10 horizontal bolt rows are possible
    • Flexible size of the fin plate
    • Location of the fin plate possible to modify
    • Designs:
      • Shear and bearing resistance design of bolts
      • Shear, bending and tension design of fin plates considering deduction of bolt hole
      • Stability analysis of long, slender fin plates
      • Shear and tension design of girder web considering deduction of bolt hole
      • Weld as fillet weld
      • Notching at the critical section
    End plate connection
    • Two or four vertical and up to 10 horizontal bolt rows
    • Flexible size of the end plate
    • Location of the end plate possible to modify
    • Designs:
      • Shear, bearing resistance and tension design of bolts
      • Shear and bending design of end plates considering deduction of bolt hole
      • Shear and tension design of girder web
      • Tension transmission into the column with the T-stub-model
      • Weld as fillet weld
      • Notching at the critical section
    End plate connection with cleat
    • Fixation of the beam by end plate with two bolts
    • Flexible size of cleat and end plate
    • Designs:
      • Load introduction into the beam according to EN 1993-1-5, Chapter 6
      • Support of the stabilizing moment by the bolts and the welds at the end plate
      • Cleat
      • Cleat welds as fillet welds
      • Tension transmission into the column with the T-stub-model
  8. 1.1 General Data

    RF-/JOINTS Steel - Pinned | Input

    After opening the add-on module, it is necessary to select the joint group (Pinned Joints) and then the joint category and the joint type (web cleat, fin plate, short end plate, end plate with cleat). Then, you can select the nodes for design in the RFEM/RSTAB model. RF‑/JOINTS Steel - Pinned recognizes the connected members automatically and determines the construction status (beam or supporting) according to their position.

    It is possible to exclude particular members from the calculation, if required. Structurally similar connections can be designed for several nodes at the same time. Loads require selection of the governing load cases, load combinations, or result combinations. Alternatively, you can enter the cross‑section and load data manually. In the last input window, the connection is configured step by step.

  9. 3.1 Design - Summary

    RF-/JOINTS Steel - Pinned | Results

    Result windows list details of all calculation results. In addition, there is a 3D graphic where you can display or hide single components as well as dimension lines and the weld data, for example. The summary shows if the individual designs have been fulfilled: The ratio level is displayed as a green data bar which turns red if the design is not fulfilled. Furthermore, the node number and the governing LC/CO/RC are indicated.

    When selecting a design, the module shows the detailed intermediate results including the actions and the additional internal forces from the connection geometry. There is the option to display the results by load case and by node. The connections are represented in a realistic 3D rendering possible to scale. In addition to the main views, it is possible to show the graphics from any perspective.

    You can add the graphics with dimensions and labels to the RFEM/RSTAB printout or export them as DXF. The printout report includes all input and result data prepared for test engineers. It is possible to export all tables to MS Excel or as a CSV file. A special transfer menu defines all specifications required for the export.

  10. Activating RF-/STEEL Plasticity add-on module in RF-/STEEL EC3

    RF-/STEEL Plasticity | Input

    The RF-/STEEL Plasticity module extension is fully integrated in RF‑/STEEL EC3. You can enter the data in the same way as in the case of usual design in RF‑/STEEL EC3. However, it is necessary to activate the plastic design of cross-sections in detail settings (see the figure).

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