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Wind Simulation & Wind Load Generation
With the stand -alone program RWIND Simulation, you can simulate wind flows around simple or complex structures by means of a digital wind tunnel.
The generated wind loads acting on these objects can be imported to RFEM or RSTAB.
Defining the appropriate effective length is crucial to obtain the correct member design capacity. For X-bracing that is connected at the center, the engineers often wonder if the full end-to-end length of the member shall be used or using half of the length to where the members are connected is sufficient.
This article outlines the recommendations given by the AISC and provides an example on how to specify the effective length of the X-braces in RFEM.
To perform deflection analysis in the right manner, it is important to “inform” the program about the exact support conditions of the element of interest. The definition of design supports in RFEM 6 will be shown for a reinforced concrete member set.
All data in RFEM 6 can be documented in a multilingual printout report. The design of the printout report is modern and has been highly optimized with respect to the previous (RFEM 5) generation of the program. Some of its most significant features are discussed in this article.
The effects due to snow load are described in the American standard ASCE/SEI 7-16 and in Eurocode 1, Parts 1 through 3. These standards are implemented in the new RFEM 6 program and the Snow Load Wizard, which serves to facilitate the application of snow loads. In addition to this, the most recent generation of the program allows the construction site to be specified on a digital map, thus allowing the snow load zone to be imported automatically. These data are, in turn, used by the Load Wizard to simulate the effects due to the snow load.
In accordance with Sect. 22.214.171.124.1 and Sect. 10.14.1.2 out of the ACI 318-19 and CSA A23.3-19 respectively, RFEM effectively takes into consideration concrete member and surface stiffness reduction for various element types. Available selection types include cracked and uncracked walls, flat plates and slabs, beams, and columns. The multiplier factors available within the program are taken directly from Table 126.96.36.199.1(a) and Table 10.14.1.2.
Imperfections in construction engineering are associated with production-related deviation of structural components from their ideal shape. They are often used in a calculation to determine the equilibrium of forces for structural components on a deformed system.
Steel has poor thermal properties in terms of fire resistance. The thermal expansion for increasing temperature is very high compared to that of other building materials, and might result in effects that were not present in the design at normal temperature due to restraint in the component.
As temperature increases, steel ductility increases, whereas steel strength decreases. Since steel loses 50% of its strength at temperature of 600 °C, it is important to protect components against fire effects. In the case of protected steel components, the fire resistance duration can be increased due to the improved heating behavior.
The punching shear design, in line with EN 1992-1-1, should be performed for slabs with a concentrated load or reaction. The node where the design of punching shear resistance is performed (i.e., where there is a punching problem) is called a node of punching shear. The concentrated load at these nodes can be introduced by columns, concentrated force, or nodal supports. The end of the linear load introduction on slabs is also regarded as a concentrated load and therefore, the shear resistance at wall ends, wall corners, and ends or corners of line loads and line supports should be controlled as well.
The stability checks for the equivalent member design according to EN 1993-1-1, AISC 360, CSA S16, and other international standards require consideration of the design length (i.e., the effective length of the members). In RFEM 6, it is possible to determine the effective length manually by assigning nodal supports and effective length factors or, on the other hand, by importing it from the stability analysis. Both options will be demonstrated in this article by determining the effective length of the framed column in Image 1.
Complex structures are assemblies of structural elements with various properties. Nevertheless, certain elements can have the same properties in terms of supports, nonlinearities, end modifications, hinges, etc., as well as design (e.g., effective lengths, design supports, reinforcement, service classes, section reductions, etc.). In RFEM 6, these elements can be grouped on the basis of their shared properties and thus can be considered together for both modeling and design.
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