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  1. Stresses and Classification

    Classification and Ultimate Limit State Design of SHAPE-THIN Cross-Sections

    When designing a steel cross-section according to Eurocode 3, it is important to assign the cross-section to one of the four cross-section classes. Classes 1 and 2 allow for a plastic design, classes 3 and 4 are only for elastic design. In addition to the resistance of the cross-section, the structural component's sufficient stability has to be analyzed.

  2. Deformations as the First Result of an FEM Calculation

    Internal Forces Diagram/Surface Stresses - Smoothing Options

    The deformations of the FE nodes are always the first result of an FE calculation. Based on these deformations and the stiffness of the elements, it is possible to calculate strains, internal forces, and stresses.

  3. Figure 01 - Research Issue

    Modeling Approaches for Shear/Hole Bearing Connections by Means of FEA

    For more detailed investigations of shear/hole bearing connections or their immediate environment, the definition of the non-linear contact problem plays an important role. This article uses a solid model to search for comparable and simplified surface models.
  4. Figure 01 - Cross-Section

    Stiffened Buckling Panels According to EN 1993-1-5, Section 4.5

    In SHAPE-THIN, it is possible to perform the calculation of stiffened buckling panels according to Section 4.5 of EN 1993-1-5. For stiffened buckling panels, the effective surfaces due to local buckling of the single panels in the plate and in the stiffeners as well as the effective surfaces from the entire panel buckling of the stiffened entire panel have to be considered.
  5. Figure 01 - System

    Pipes under internal pressure load

    Piping systems are exposed to a variety of loads. Among the most authoritative is the internal pressure. This article will therefore deal with the stresses and deformations resulting from a pure internal pressure load in the pipe wall or for the pipe.
  6. Result Diagrams of Gross Cross-Section

    Redistributing Shear Stresses from Null Elements

    SHAPE-THIN allows you to calculate section properties and stresses of any cross‑sections. If a flange or a web is weakened by bolt holes, you can consider this by using null elements. The stresses are subsequently recalculated with the reduced cross‑section values. In this case, it is necessary to pay special attention to shear stresses. By default, these are set to zero in the area of the null elements. When recalculating shear stresses with the reduced cross‑section values and without further adaptation, it turns out that the integral of the shear stresses is no longer equal to the applied shear force. The following example shows in detail how to calculate the shear stress.

  7. Figure 01 - Combinatorics

    Load Combinations for Pipe Stresses due to Occasional Loads

    The add‑on modules RF‑PIPING and RF‑PIPING Design allow you to design piping systems according to EN 13480‑3 [1], ASME B31.1 and B31.3. In the case of the European standard, the determination of pipe stresses is based on the formulas of Section 12.3 Flexibility analysis. Depending on the stress type, one or more resulting moments is applied without regard to each other. This differentiation occurs when determining the stresses due to occasional loads, for example.

  8. Figure 01 - Dimmed Option of Increasing Material Factor ε if Stability Analysis Active

    Determination of Effective Widths According to EN 1993-1-5, Annex E

    Eurocode 3 provides Table 5.2 for the classification of cross‑section parts supported on one or two sides and various load situations. Generally, the determination of effective widths is based on the limit stresses of the structural steel used. However, in DIN 18800, the b/t limits were determined on the basis of the actual stresses in the cross‑section. Thus, unfavorable limits may arise, especially for stresses below the yield strength, according to Eurocode 3.

  9. Wall Thickness Allowances in RF-PIPING

    Wall Thickness Allowances

    For stress calculations, some standards use “analysis wall thickness,” which we get by subtracting corrosion, abrasion allowance, manufacturing allowances (threading, grooving, etc.), and mill tolerances from nominal wall thickness. All needed values can be entered in the “Piping Cross‑Section” dialog box, “Stress Analysis Parameters” tab.

  10. Stresses in RF-STEEL Surfaces for Weld Seam Design

    Stresses for Weld Seam Design

    In RF-STEEL Surfaces, it is possible to display the stresses relevant for the design of welds according to EN 1993‑1‑8, Figure 4.5, for example. When evaluating the stress ratio, the local axis system xyz of surfaces has to be taken into account.

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