# Knowledge Base

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1. ## Determination of Transversal Shear Under Seismic Loads

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In RF-/DYNAM Pro - Equivalent Loads, the equivalent seismic loads can be calculated according to different standards. By calculating the equivalent loads for each eigenvalue, it is not directly possible to obtain the transversal shear for each story to perform an analysis afterwards. The following example describes the option to calculate the transversal shear quickly and efficiently.
2. ## ZPA Method in Response Spectrum Analysis

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In a multi-modal response spectrum analysis, it is important to determine a sufficient number of eigenvalues of the structure and to consider their dynamic responses. Regulations such as EN 1998-1 [1] and other international standards require to activate 90 % of the structural mass. This means: to determine as many eigenvalues that the sum of the effective modal mass factor is greater 0.9.

3. ## Design of Curved Glulam Beams According to ANSI/AWC NDS

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RFEM offers the possibility to model also curved beams. To do this, a curved line must be created first (see Figure 01).This line can then be assigned a beam with a cross-section. The advantages over modeling with beam segments are the easier handling during the modeling as well as the clearer results output of the internal forces.

4. ## Forces by Screw in Main-Connected Beam Joint

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RF-/JOINTS Timber - Timber to Timber allows you to design main-connected beam joints. This article explains the determination of forces in screws of a beam connected to a torsionally rigid main beam.

5. ## Design of Foundation Rotation

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Using RF-/FOUNDATION Pro, it is possible to perform geotechnical design according to EN 1997‑1 [1] for single foundations. The following article explains the design of highly eccentric loading in the foundation core according to DIN EN 1997‑1, A 6.6.5 (see [3]).

6. ## Limit Values for Stability Analysis in RF-/STEEL EC3

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As of the program version X.11, the filter options of small compression forces or moments for stability analysis in RF‑/STEEL EC3 have been revised. The revision of these filter options in the “Stability” tab of the “Details” dialog box allows you to work in the module transparently since they are now independent of the design.

7. ## Calculation Example of Rigid End Plate Connection According to EN 1993-1-8

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In this example, design resistance of an end plate according to EN 1993-1-8 [1] is to be determined; the other components are not described here. To check the results, the dimensions of the connection IH 3.1 B 30 24 of Typified Connections [2] were used. The material S 235 and bolts with the strength 10.9 are used.

8. ## Structural Fire Design According to DIN EN 1993-1-2 (Thermal Material Properties)

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Using RF-/STEEL EC3, you can apply nominal temperature‑time curves in RFEM or RSTAB. For this, the standard time‑temperature curve (ETK), the external fire curve and the hydrocarbon fire curve are implemented in the program. Based on these temperature curves, the add‑on module can calculate the temperature in the steel cross‑section and thus perform the fire design using the determined temperatures. This article explains the thermal behavior of structural steel as this is a direct impact on the calculation of component temperatures in RF‑/STEEL EC3.

9. ## SJI Virtual Joists Available

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The Steel Joist Institute (SJI) has previously developed Virtual Joist tables to estimate the section properties for Open Web Steel Joists. These Virtual Joist sections are characterized as equivalent wide-flange beams which closely approximate the joist chord area, effective moment of inertia, and weight. Virtual Joists are also available in the RFEM and RSTAB cross‑section database.

10. ## Downstand Beams, Ribs, T-Beams: Shear Between Web and Flanges

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In order to ensure the effects of panels, which should act as tensile or compression chords, it is necessary to connect them to the web in a shear‑resistant manner. This connection is obtained in a similar way as the shear transfer in the joint between concreting sections by using the interaction between compressive struts and ties. In order to ensure the shear resistance, it must be verified that the compressive strut resistance is given and the tie force can be absorbed by the transverse reinforcement.

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