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Wind Simulation & Wind Load Generation
With the stand-alone program RWIND Simulation, wind flows around simple or complex structures can be simulated by means of a digital wind tunnel.
The generated wind loads acting on these objects can be imported to RFEM or RSTAB.
This article describes the design of the timber panel walls due to the generated horizontal loads.
Buildings are structures surrounded by wind. The flow around it creates specific loads on the surfaces, which are to be used for the design in the structural design.
In this technical article, a hinged column with a centrally acting axial force will be designed by means of the RF-/STEEL EC3 add-on module according to EN 1993-1-2. We will use the National Annex of Germany here.
Using the RF-TIMBER AWC module, timber column design is possible according to the 2018 NDS standard ASD method. Accurately calculating timber member compressive capacity and adjustment factors is important for safety considerations and design. The following article will verify the maximum critical buckling in RF-TIMBER AWC using step-by-step analytical equations per the NDS 2018 standard including the compressive adjustment factors, adjusted compressive design value, and final design ratio.
Limiting Crack Widths According to DIN EN 1992-1-1 with and Without Direct Calculation in RF-CONCRETE
Eurocode 2 provides two ways to perform a crack width design. On the one hand, the crack width design according to 7.3.3 can be performed without direct calculation by means of tables for the limitation of the member spacing and diameter. On the other hand, the crack width wk can be determined directly according to 7.3.4 and compared with a limit value.
Reinforced concrete surface design for slabs, plates, and walls is possible in the RF-CONCRETE Surfaces module according to the ACI 318-19 or the CSA A23.3-19 standard. A common approach for slab design is the use of design strips for determining the average one-way internal forces over the width of the strip. This design strip method essentially takes a two-way slab element and applies a simpler one-way approach to determine the required reinforcement needed along the strip length.
With the RF-STABILITY or RSBUCK add-on modules for RFEM and RSTAB, it is possible to perform eigenvalue analyzes for member structures in order to determine the effective length factors. The effective length coefficients can then be used for the stability design.
The design of cold-rolled steel products is defined in EN 1993-1-3. Typical cross-section shapes are channel, C, Z, top-hat, or sigma sections. These are cold-rolled steel products made of thin-walled sheet metal that has been cold-formed by roll-forming or bending methods. When designing the ultimate limit states, it is also necessary to ensure that local transverse forces do not lead to compression, crippling of the web or local buckling in the web of the sections. These effects can be caused by local transverse forces by the flange into the web as well as by support forces at the supported points. Section 6.1.7 of EN 1993-1-3 specifies in detail how to determine the resistance of the web Rw,Rd under local transverse forces.
Utilize the RF-/STEEL Cold-Formed Sections module extension to perform ultimate limit state designs of cold-formed sections according to EN 1993-1-3 and EN 1993-1-5. In addition to the cold-formed cross-sections from the cross-section database, you can also design general cross-sections from SHAPE-THIN.
Slender bending beams with a large h/w ratio and loaded parallel to the minor axis tend to have stability issues. This is due to the deflection of the compression chord.
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