# Knowledge Base

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1. ## Differences Between the Analytical and Nonlinear Deformation Analysis of Reinforced Concrete

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Different methods are available for calculating the deformation in the cracked state. RFEM provides an analytical method according to DIN EN 1992-1-1 7.4.3 and a physical-nonlinear analysis. Both methods have different features and can be more or less suitable depending on the circumstances. This article will give an overview of the two calculation methods.

2. ## Exporting Spring Stiffnesses from RF-/FOUNDATION Pro and the Influence on Column Design

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With RF-FOUNDATION Pro, it is possible to determine settlements of single foundations and resulting spring stiffnesses of the nodal supports. These spring stiffnesses can be exported into the RFEM model and used for further analyses.

3. ## Internal Forces Diagram/Surface Stresses - Smoothing Options

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The deformations of the FE nodes are always the first result of an FE calculation. Based on these deformations and the stiffness of the elements, it is possible to calculate strains, internal forces, and stresses.

4. ## Nonlinear Analysis in RF-/CONCRETE

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When designing reinforced concrete components according to EN 1992‑1‑1 [1], it is possible to use nonlinear calculation methods to determine internal forces for the ultimate limit state and the serviceability limit state. In this case, the internal forces and deformations are determined with respect to their nonlinear behavior. The analysis of stresses and strains in cracked state usually provides the deflections, which clearly exceed the linearly determined values.

5. ## DXF Exporting Results

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RF‑CONCRETE Surfaces performs the ultimate and the serviceability limit state design of slabs, plates, folded plates and shells. In RFEM, the reinforcement resulting from this design can be displayed graphically on the surfaces of the structure using isolines. For the reinforcement design, it may be useful to export the results as isoline distribution in a DXF file in order to open them in a CAD application as background layers.

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