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  1. Figure 01 - Option "Save the results of all load increments"

    Iterative RFEM Calculation with Load Increments

    The calculation in RFEM is usually carried out in several calculation steps, the so-called iterations. It is then possible to consider particular characteristics of the model such as objects with nonlinear functions. In addition, by using the iterative calculation, nonlinear effects are taken into account which result from changes in deformation and internal forces in case of the second-order analysis or when considering large deformations (cable theory). In case of complex models, geometric linear calculations are usually not sufficient.

  2. Figure 01 - Real Model and Structural System

    Considering End Releases Between Surfaces

    This article deals with considering end releases between surfaces with line hinges and line releases. Examples are joints in reinforced concrete structures or frame joints in cross-laminated timber structures.
  3. Figure 01 - Transversal Strain

    Orthotropic Material Laws

    Orthotropic material laws are used wherever materials are arranged according to their loading. Examples include fiber-reinforced plastics, trapezoidal sheets, reinforced concrete or timber.

  4. Figure 01 - Model of Steel Shell Structure

    Plate Buckling Analysis of Steel Shell Structures Using MNA/LBA Concept

    Shell buckling is considered to be the most recent and least explored stability issue of structural engineering. This is less due to a lack of research activities, but rather due to the complexity of the theory. With the introduction and further development of the finite element method in structural engineering practice, some engineers no longer have to deal with the complicated theory of shell buckling. Evidence of the problems and errors to which this gives rise is very well summarized in [1].

  5. Figure 01 - Structural System

    Differences of Calculation Methods in Structural Analysis

    For structural dimensioning according to the valid rules, there are often several options or calculation methods to determine the internal forces. It is up to the engineer to decide which theory is suitable to design the structure.

  6. Figure 01 - Diagram: Tearing

    Explanation of Support Nonlinearities on Example | 1.2 Translation

    RFEM and RSTAB provide numerous options for nonlinear definitions of nodal supports. Continuing my previous article, this article further describes options for creating a nonlinear free support and provides a simple example. For better understanding, the result is always compared to a linearly defined support.

  7. Figure 01 - System and Loading

    Nonlinear Analysis in RF-/CONCRETE

    When designing reinforced concrete components according to EN 1992‑1‑1 [1], it is possible to use nonlinear calculation methods to determine internal forces for the ultimate limit state and the serviceability limit state. In this case, the internal forces and deformations are determined with respect to their nonlinear behaviour. The analysis of stresses and strains in cracked state usually provides the deflections, which clearly exceed the linearly determined values.

  8. Figure 01 - Stress-Strain Diagram of Steel (Source: [1])

    Hardening Parameters in Nonlinear Material Models

    Strain hardening is the material ability to reach a higher stiffness by redistributing (stretching) microcrystals in the crystal lattice of the structure. A distinction is made between the material isotropic hardening as scalar quantities or tensorial kinematic hardening.

  9. Figure 01 - Failure if Negative PX'

    Explanation of Support Nonlinearities on Example | 1.1 Translation

    In practice, an engineer often faces the task of representing the support conditions as close to reality as possible in order to be able to analyse deformations and internal forces of the structure subjected to their influence and to enable as much cost‑efficient construction as possible. RFEM and RSTAB provide numerous options for defining nonlinear nodal supports. The first part of my article describes the options for creating a nonlinear free support and provides a simple example. For better understanding, the result is always compared to a linearly defined support.

  10. Figure 01 - Yield Surfaces in RFEM (von Mises, Tresca, Drucker-Prager, Mohr-Coulomb)

    Nonlinear Material Model Damage

    One of my earlier articles described the Isotropic Nonlinear Elastic material model. However, many materials do not have a purely symmetrical nonlinear material behaviour. In this regard, the yield laws according to von Mises, Drucker-Prager and Mohr-Coulomb mentioned in this previous article are also limited to the yield surface in the principal stress space.

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