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  1. Figure 02 - Structure with Cantilevered Floor

    Differences Between the Analytical and Nonlinear Deformation Analysis of Reinforced Concrete

    Different methods are available for calculating the deformation in the cracked state. RFEM provides an analytical method according to DIN EN 1992-1-1 7.4.3 and a physical-nonlinear analysis. Both methods have different features and can be more or less suitable depending on the circumstances. This article will give an overview of the two calculation methods.

  2. Figure 01 - Research Issue

    Modelling Approaches for Shear/Hole Bearing Connections by Means of FEA

    For more detailed investigations of shear/hole bearing connections or their immediate environment, the definition of the non-linear contact problem plays an important role. This article uses a solid model to search for comparable and simplified surface models.
  3. Figure 01 - Option "Save the results of all load increments"

    Iterative RFEM Calculation with Load Increments

    The calculation in RFEM is usually carried out in several calculation steps, the so-called iterations. It is then possible to consider particular characteristics of the model such as objects with nonlinear functions. In addition, by using the iterative calculation, nonlinear effects are taken into account which result from changes in deformation and internal forces in case of the second-order analysis or when considering large deformations (cable theory). In case of complex models, geometric linear calculations are usually not sufficient.

  4. Figure 01 - Real Model and Structural System

    Considering End Releases Between Surfaces

    This article deals with considering end releases between surfaces with line hinges and line releases. Examples are joints in reinforced concrete structures or frame joints in cross-laminated timber structures.
  5. Orthotropic Material Laws

    Orthotropic material laws are used wherever materials are arranged according to their loading. Examples include fiber-reinforced plastics, trapezoidal sheets, reinforced concrete or timber.

  6. Figure 01 - Model of Steel Shell Structure

    Plate Buckling Analysis of Steel Shell Structures Using MNA/LBA Concept

    Shell buckling is considered to be the most recent and least explored stability issue of structural engineering. This is less due to a lack of research activities, but rather due to the complexity of the theory. With the introduction and further development of the finite element method in structural engineering practice, some engineers no longer have to deal with the complicated theory of shell buckling. Evidence of the problems and errors to which this gives rise is very well summarized in [1].

  7. Differences of Calculation Methods in Structural Analysis

    For structural dimensioning according to the valid rules, there are often several options or calculation methods to determine the internal forces. It is up to the engineer to decide which theory is suitable to design the structure.

  8. Figure 01 - Diagram: Tearing
  9. Figure 01 - System and Loading

    Nonlinear Analysis in RF-/CONCRETE

    When designing reinforced concrete components according to EN 1992‑1‑1 [1], it is possible to use nonlinear calculation methods to determine internal forces for the ultimate limit state and the serviceability limit state. In this case, the internal forces and deformations are determined with respect to their nonlinear behaviour. The analysis of stresses and strains in cracked state usually provides the deflections, which clearly exceed the linearly determined values.

  10. Hardening Parameters in Nonlinear Material Models

    Strain hardening is the material ability to reach a higher stiffness by redistributing (stretching) microcrystals in the crystal lattice of the structure. A distinction is made between the material isotropic hardening as scalar quantities or tensorial kinematic hardening.

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