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1. ## Differences Between the Analytical and Nonlinear Deformation Analysis of Reinforced Concrete

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Different methods are available for calculating the deformation in the cracked state. RFEM provides an analytical method according to DIN EN 1992-1-1 7.4.3 and a physical-nonlinear analysis. Both methods have different features and can be more or less suitable depending on the circumstances. This article will give an overview of the two calculation methods.

2. ## Modelling Approaches for Shear/Hole Bearing Connections by Means of FEA

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For more detailed investigations of shear/hole bearing connections or their immediate environment, the definition of the non-linear contact problem plays an important role. This article uses a solid model to search for comparable and simplified surface models.
3. ## Iterative RFEM Calculation with Load Increments

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The calculation in RFEM is usually carried out in several calculation steps, the so-called iterations. It is then possible to consider particular characteristics of the model such as objects with nonlinear functions. In addition, by using the iterative calculation, nonlinear effects are taken into account which result from changes in deformation and internal forces in case of the second-order analysis or when considering large deformations (cable theory). In case of complex models, geometric linear calculations are usually not sufficient.

4. ## Considering End Releases Between Surfaces

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This article deals with considering end releases between surfaces with line hinges and line releases. Examples are joints in reinforced concrete structures or frame joints in cross-laminated timber structures.
5. ## Orthotropic Material Laws

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Orthotropic material laws are used wherever materials are arranged according to their loading. Examples include fiber-reinforced plastics, trapezoidal sheets, reinforced concrete or timber.

6. ## Plate Buckling Analysis of Steel Shell Structures Using MNA/LBA Concept

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Shell buckling is considered to be the most recent and least explored stability issue of structural engineering. This is less due to a lack of research activities, but rather due to the complexity of the theory. With the introduction and further development of the finite element method in structural engineering practice, some engineers no longer have to deal with the complicated theory of shell buckling. Evidence of the problems and errors to which this gives rise is very well summarized in [1].

7. ## Differences of Calculation Methods in Structural Analysis

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For structural dimensioning according to the valid rules, there are often several options or calculation methods to determine the internal forces. It is up to the engineer to decide which theory is suitable to design the structure.

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9. ## Nonlinear Analysis in RF-/CONCRETE

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When designing reinforced concrete components according to EN 1992‑1‑1 [1], it is possible to use nonlinear calculation methods to determine internal forces for the ultimate limit state and the serviceability limit state. In this case, the internal forces and deformations are determined with respect to their nonlinear behaviour. The analysis of stresses and strains in cracked state usually provides the deflections, which clearly exceed the linearly determined values.

10. ## Hardening Parameters in Nonlinear Material Models

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Strain hardening is the material ability to reach a higher stiffness by redistributing (stretching) microcrystals in the crystal lattice of the structure. A distinction is made between the material isotropic hardening as scalar quantities or tensorial kinematic hardening.

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