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  1. Figure 01 - Cross-Section

    Stiffened Buckling Panels According to EN 1993-1-5, Section 4.5

    In SHAPE-THIN, it is possible to perform the calculation of stiffened buckling panels according to Section 4.5 of EN 1993-1-5. For stiffened buckling panels, the effective surfaces due to local buckling of the single panels in the plate and in the stiffeners as well as the effective surfaces from the entire panel buckling of the stiffened entire panel have to be considered.
  2. Figure 01 - System

    Pipes Under Internal Pressure Load

    Pipe systems are exposed to a large number of loadings. Internal pressure is one of the most governing loads. Therefore, this article describes the stresses and deformations resulting from a pure internal pressure load in the pipe's wall and for the pipe respectively.

  3. Figure 01 - Result Diagrams of Gross Cross-Section

    Redistributing Shear Stresses from Null Elements

    SHAPE-THIN allows you to calculate section properties and stresses of any cross‑sections. If a flange or a web is weakened by bolt holes, you can consider this by using null elements. The stresses are subsequently recalculated with the reduced cross‑section values. In this case, it is necessary to pay special attention to shear stresses. By default, these are set to zero in the area of the null elements. When recalculating shear stresses with the reduced cross‑section values and without further adaptation, it turns out that the integral of the shear stresses is no longer equal to the applied shear force. The following example shows in detail how to calculate the shear stress.

  4. Figure 01 - Combinatorics

    Load Combinations for Pipe Stresses due to Occasional Loads

    The add-on modules RF-PIPING and RF-PIPING Design allow you to design piping systems according to EN 13480-3 [1], ASME B31.1 and B31.3. In the case of the European standard, the determination of pipe stresses is based on the formulas of Section 12.3 Flexibility analysis. Depending on the stress type, one or more resulting moments is applied without regard to each other. This differentiation occurs when determining the stresses due to occasional loads, for example.

  5. Figure 01 - Dimmed Option of Increasing Material Factor ε if Stability Analysis Active

    Determination of Effective Widths According to EN 1993-1-5, Annex E

    Eurocode 3 provides Table 5.2 for the classification of cross-section parts supported on one or two sides and various load situations. Generally, the determination of effective widths is based on the limit stresses of the structural steel used. However, in DIN 18800, the b/t limits were determined on the basis of the actual stresses in the cross-section. Thus, unfavorable limits may arise, especially for stresses below the yield strength, according to Eurocode 3.

  6. Wall Thickness Allowances in RF-PIPING

    Wall Thickness Allowances

    For stress calculations, some standards use ‘analysis wall thickness’, which we get by subtracting corrosion, abrasion allowance, manufacturing allowances (threading, grooving, etc.), and mill tolerances from nominal wall thickness. All needed values can be entered in the ‘Piping Cross‑Section’ dialog box, ‘Stress Analysis Parameters’ tab.

  7. Stresses in RF-STEEL Surfaces for Weld Seam Design

    Stresses for Weld Seam Design

    In RF-STEEL Surfaces, it is possible to display the stresses relevant for the design of welds according to EN 1993‑1‑8, Figure 4.5, for example. When evaluating the stress ratio, the local axis system xyz of surfaces has to be taken into account.

  8. Damage Equivalent Factors in RF-/STEEL Fatigue Members

    Damage Equivalent Factors

    Damage equivalent factors depend on the respective components to be designed in RF‑/STEEL Fatigue Members and they are explained in the corresponding standards. The following list shows an overview of the standards, which describe the calculation of the damage equivalent factors in detail.

  9. Graphical Stress Evaluation of Members

    Graphical Stress Evaluation of Members

    In RFEM, you can save the results of individual load increments during the calculation and display them graphically. Thus, you can graphically display and check the reaction diagram of different load levels for nonlinear supports.

  10. Displaying Stress Components and Equivalent Stresses

    Displaying Stress Components and Equivalent Stresses

    RFEM 5.04.xx allows for graphical visualization of normal and shear stress of members (this feature is available only if the RF‑STEEL add‑on module is licensed).

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