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Wind Simulation & Wind Load Generation
With the stand-alone program RWIND Simulation, wind flows around simple or complex structures can be simulated by means of a digital wind tunnel.
The generated wind loads acting on these objects can be imported to RFEM or RSTAB.
As gravity loads act on a structure, lateral displacement occurs. In turn, a secondary overturning moment is generated as the gravity load continues to act on the elements in the laterally displaced position. This effect is also known as "P-Delta (Δ)." Sect. 22.214.171.124 of the ASCE 7-16 Standard and the NBC 2015 Commentary specify when P-Delta effects should be considered during a modal response spectrum analysis.
In accordance with Sect. 126.96.36.199.1 and Sect. 10.14.1.2 out of the ACI 318-14 and CSA A23.3-14 respectively, RFEM effectively takes into consideration concrete member and surface stiffness reduction for various element types. Available selection types include cracked and uncracked walls, flat plates and slabs, beams, and columns. The multiplier factors available within the program are taken directly from Table 188.8.131.52.1(a) and Table 10.14.1.2.
With RF-FOUNDATION Pro, it is possible to determine settlements of single foundations and resulting spring stiffnesses of the nodal supports. These spring stiffnesses can be exported into the RFEM model and used for further analyses.
This article deals with the stiffness of standardized joints according to the DSTV (German Steel Construction Association)/DASt (German Committee for Structural Steelwork) standards, often used in steel construction, and its effects on structural analysis and design results according to DIN EN 1993-1-1.
When designing reinforced concrete components according to EN 1992‑1‑1 , nonlinear methods of determining internal forces for the ultimate and serviceability limit states are possible. The internal forces and deformations are determined by considering the nonlinear internal forces-deformation behavior. The calculation of stresses and strains in the cracked state usually results in deflections that are significantly higher than the values determined linearly.
Building in existing structures has always been an area of expertise for engineers. Additional loads often have to be added to the existing buildings. In this case, steel girders with end plates and dowel connections are frequently used.
This article explains how to determine loads on the basis of the internal force situations defined in the RF-/STEEL Warping Torsion extension of the RF-/STEEL EC3 add-on module. Since this new program allows you to also analyze extracted chain-like beam structures in addition to entire chain-like beam structures, it is necessary to determine the loads of the partial structure separately. For this, a special transformation function has been developed, which determines new loads of all partial structures (depending on the internal forces calculated in RFEM/RSTAB) according to each load situation for geometrically nonlinear warping torsion analysis with seven degrees of freedom.
Requirements for the design of structural stability are given in the AISC 360 – 14th Ed. Chapter C. In particular, the direct analysis method provisions, which was previously located in Appendix 7 of the AISC 360 – 13th Ed., are described in detail. This method is considered an alternative to the effective length method which in turn eliminates the need for effective length (K) factors other than 1.0.
In RF‑/TIMBER Pro, you can now also perform the vibration analysis known from DIN 1052 for the design according to EN 1995‑1‑1. In this analysis, the deflection under permanent and quasi-permanent action at the ideal one‑span beam may not exceed a limit value (6 mm according to DIN 1052). If the relationship shown in the graphic between natural frequency and deflection is considered for a hinged one‑span beam that is subjected to a constant uniform load, then the 6 mm result in a minimum natural frequency of about 7.2 Hz. If we take into account the fact that in most National Annexes of EC 5, a minimum natural frequency of 8.00 Hz is to be considered, then we obtain a maximum deflection of about 5 mm. If the structural system deviates from a hinged one‑span beam (for example a continuous beam, cantilevers, restraints), then the limit deflection is to be considered.
In an earlier post, we looked at the possibility of satisfying the minimum frequency in RF‑/TIMBER Pro. In this post, we want to illustrate this topic by in an example.
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