# Knowledge Base

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1. ## Impact Load of a Passenger Car on a Carport

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The fundamental requirements of a structural system are, according to the basis of structural design, sufficient ultimate limit state, serviceability and resistance. Structures must be designed in such a way that no damage occurs due to events such as the impact of a vehicle.

2. ## Seismic Loads on Buildings in Germany

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DIN EN 1998-1 with the National Annex DIN EN 1998-1/NA specifies how to determine seismic loads. The standard applies to structural engineering in seismic areas.

3. ## Calculating Timber Panel Walls | 1. Determining the Ultimate Limit State and Stiffness

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The stiffening of timber structures is usually carried out by means of timber panels. For this purpose, structural components consisting of slabs (chipboards, OSB) are connected with members. Several articles will describe the basics of this construction method and the calculation in the RFEM program. This first article describes the basic determination of the stiffnesses as well as the calculation.

4. ## Load Combinations in Timber Structures for European and American Timber Standards

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In addition to determine loads, there are some particularities concerning the load combinatorics in timber design which have to be considered. Contrary to steel structures where the largest loading results from all unfavorable actions, in timber construction, the strength values are dependent on the load duration and the timber humidity. Special characteristics have to be considered as well for the serviceability limit state design. The following article discusses the effects on the design of wooden elements and how this is possible with RSTAB and RFEM.

5. ## Wind Load on Monopitch and Duopitch Roofs in Germany

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In Germany, DIN EN 1991-1-4 with the National Annex DIN EN 1991-1-4/NA regulates the wind loads. The standard applies to civil engineering works up to an altitude of 300 m.
6. ## Considering End Releases Between Surfaces

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This article deals with considering end releases between surfaces with line hinges and line releases. Examples are joints in reinforced concrete structures or frame joints in cross-laminated timber structures.
7. ## 2018 NDS Updates for Cross-Laminated Timber Design

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The American Wood Council (AWC) has released the 2018 Edition of the National Design Specification (NDS) for Wood Construction. This is the second edition of the NDS to contain a chapter dedicated to cross-laminated timber (CLT) design. Therefore, a couple of revisions were included in the 2018 NDS when compared to the previous 2015 Edition.
8. ## Determination of Wind Loads for Canopy Roof Structures According to EN 1991-1-4

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If a canopy roof, for example a filling station roof, should be designed, a load determination having regard to Section 7.3 of EN 1991-1-4 is required. This article shows with an example the design of a slightly inclined troughed roof.
9. ## Consideration of P-Delta Effects (Second-Order Analysis) in the Response Spectrum Analysis According to ASCE 7-16

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RFEM offers the option to perform a response spectrum analysis according to ASCE 7-16. This standard describes the determination of seismic loads for the US-American market. It might happen that the so-called P-Delta effect has to be considered due to the stiffness of the entire structure to be able to calculate the internal forces and carry out the design.
10. ## Modeling of Semi-Rigid Composite Beam Made of Timber as Surface Model

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There are several options to calculate a semi-rigid composite beam. They differ primarily in the type of modeling. Whereas the Gamma method ensures a simple modeling, additional efforts are required when using other methods (e.g. shear analogy) for the modeling which are, however, offset by the much more flexible application compared to the Gamma method.

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