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  • Answer

    The RWIND Simulation program organizes its data internally in ParaView format. Since RWIND Simulation displays the results independently, the ParaView data is only stored in the working directory of the currently open RWIND Simulation input.

    The current working directory for temporary files is specified in the program options under the "Files and Directories" tab.

    Image 01 - Folder of the working directory

    In the subfolder\~ RWIND_Simulation\Project\RF_Simul, the program saves the corresponding ParaView files with results on the model and in the volume space around the model.

    Image 02 - Temporary ParaView files

  • Answer

    The determination of internal forces "Grouped" is divided into four subcommands.

    1. u with my , mxy , vy , ny , nxy
    2. v with mx , mxy , vx , nx , nxy
    3. u with mx , mxy , vx , nx , nxy
    4. v with my , mxy , vy , ny , nxy

    The effect of these commands is explained in a simple example.


    • Plate as a wall-like beam
    • Wingspan 9 m
    • Beam height 1.5 m
    • Concentrated load 20 kN in the center of the span
    • FE mesh size 10 cm
    Figure 1 shows the maximum and minimum internal forces at the load application point unsmoothed. Obviously, these internal forces are singular results. You can find detailed information about singularities in technical article 001503 .

    In order to completely include at least two FE elements per side of the load introduction through the smoothing area, a smoothing area of 50/50 cm is defined (Figure 2).

    The following table shows the change of smoothing separately for each grouping. Only the drawn upper area of the load application is considered. The grouping 0 stands for the unsmoothed internal forces.

    nx74.9 kN/m74.9 kN/m47.2 kN/m51.8 kN/m74.9 kN/m
    ny109.0 kN/m26.5 kN/m109.0 kN/m109.0 kN/m5.8 kN/m
    nxy75.1 kN/m30.7 kN/m15.8 kN/m30.7 kN/m15.8 kN/m

    The table shows that a combination of grouping 1 and 2 as well as 3 and 4 is always reasonable in relation to the axial forces.

    Figure 3 shows the smoothed internal forces for groups 1/2 and 3/4 together.

    The following values are used for the combinations:

     1/23/41/2 and 3/4
    nx47.2 kN/m51.8 kN/m47.1 kN/m
    ny26.5 kN/m5.8 kN/m5.3 kN/m
    nxy12.9 kN/m12.9 kN/m12.9 kN/m

    As already mentioned, the combinations 1/2 and 3/4 use the minimum average internal forces of the respective grouping. The shear force nxy is calculated from the forces in the normal direction and is therefore already displayed as "smeared shear force" for the combination 1/2 and 3/4.


    For a material with pronounced stiffness and strength directions, such as reinforced concrete or cross-laminated timber, the orientation of the strengths is relevant for the selection of the correct grouping. In the combination of group 1/2, the internal forces are smoothed in the longitudinal direction of the structural component, in group 3/4 in the transverse direction. If the structural component is oriented in the longitudinal direction as shown in Figure 4, the smoothing in the longitudinal direction is therefore recommended. However, the type of load application and the governing design are also important here. All groupings can be used for an isotropic material as well as for a governing shear force design.
  • Answer

    Tapered members must not be designed according to the simplified equivalent member method!

    For steel structures, the design can be performed by considering the warping torsion or using the General Method. These methods are described in this technical article.

    For timber structures, the design can also be performed by considering the warping torsion. The method for timber structures is explained in detail in thiswebinar.

    According to the equivalent member method, the design can be performed if the provisions of the explanations for DIN 1052, Section E8.4.2 (3) for variable cross-sections are met. In various sources of technical literature, this method is adopted for Eurocode 5. An example of this can be found in the document on, page 64 ff.

    In the RX‑TIMBER program, the design of tapered members is performed according to the equivalent member method. This is briefly explained on a simple example.

    Structural System (Figure 01):

    • Span length: 8 m
    • Beam height right: 80 cm
    • Beam height left: 26 cm
    • Roof inclination: 3.9°
    No stiffening is defined. The lateral-torsional stability becomes governing with 99% (Figure 02) at the x‑location 1.598 m. The cross-section height is 36.8 cm. However, the slenderness ratio is based on the equivalent cross-section height of 60.9 cm (Figure 03).

    The equivalent cross-section height results at the x-location 5.2 m about 0.65 × 8 m = 5.2 m.

    If the stiffening is in the middle of the span, for example, the equivalent height for the x‑location changes to 45.3 cm.

    Since the stiffening is usually applied over the member length, the height must be calculated according to a special algorithm. The supports are always applied as fixed points and the equivalent heights are calculated, based on the x-locations of the designs.

    For the example, the following results: x0.65 = 0.32 x 4 m + 1.598 m = 2.878 m
  • Answer

    In addition to the standard functions, all input tables in the program also have the block functions. They allow you to edit marked numbers and number fields in the table in one step.

    You can access the block functions by right-clicking in the table:
    1. Add - A value is added to or subtracted from the selected cells with a numerical value.
    2. Multiply - Cells with a numerical value are multiplied by a factor.
    3. Divide - Cells with a numerical value are divided by a divisor.
    4. Set - The value of the first selected cell is set to all cells in the selection.
    5. Generate - Cells between the first and the last selected row are generated by interpolation of both edge values.

    The "Set" function allows you to quickly transfer a value to other rows.

    These functions are an ideal tool for changing the existing node coordinates to a new geometry, for linear extrapolation of unit load entries to any value, for unifying the values, ​​and much more.
  • Answer

    The stand-alone program RWIND Simulation currently only allows the import of the STL and VTP model geometries. On the other hand, the IFC models can currently only be imported to RWIND Simulation by using the integrated interface in the program RFEM or RSTAB. For this, proceed as follows:

    1. Create a new RFEM or RSTAB model.
    2. In General Data, activate the "Enable CAD/BIM Model" option under the Options tab.
      Image 01 - Activating CAD/BIM Model Environment
    3. Use the "Import New Model - IFC" function in the Project navigator to import the desired Reference View IFC model under the "CAD/BIM Model" tab.
      Image 02 - IFC Import
    4. Model a pseudo-surface without the influence of the wind geometry within the IFC model body.
    5. Open the "RWIND Simulation - Simulate and Generate Wind Loads" interface under the "Calculation" menu.
    6. Specify the wind to be applied in the "Wind Load" tab.
    7. In the "Settings" tab, select the "Export Surrounding Model" and "CAD/BIM Models" options in the "Export to RWIND Simulation" section.
      Image 03 - Export of CAD/BIM Model to RWIND Simulation
    8. In the "Load Cases" tab, select the wind direction to be analyzed and open the RWIND Simulation environment using the "Open in RWIND Simulation" function.
    9. Use the imported IFC model in RWIND Simulation.

  • Answer

    Yes, the Geo-zone tool on the website "Snow Load Zones, Wind Zones and Seismic Zones" provides a web service in the background that can be used to generate raster graphics similar to the Geo-zone tool full-screen mode website for a location on the map and a load standard without opening the website.

    The web service can be used for all load maps from the visible online service and is controlled by a URL address. An external process (your application) sends the request URL address to our server (Dlubal) and receives a raster graphic as a result. To ensure the process to works, the URL address must contain all specifications for defining the parameters of a load type, load standard, geolocation, zoom level, sea level, street, ZIP code, city, state, image activation, image format, image width, image height, display language, and a user. Please note that this web service function assumes that the address data and the sea level have already been determined by the previous web service request for load data of the same geolocation, and the components of web service request for the raster image described above are therefore completed with the previously determined data. The final URL is then composed of these components.

    The load type and the standard are defined by the "map" component. The first part describes the load type (for example, snow, wind or earthquake) and the second part describes the standard (for example, din-en-1991-1-3).

    → map=snow-din-en-1991-1-3

    The geolocation is defined by the "position" component. The "position" entry describes the geolocation by using the geographic coordinates in the format [latitude in °, longitude in °].

    → position=49.4354351,12.5896119

    The zoom level is defined by the "zoom" component. This setting controls the zoom setting of the map itself. The map scale becomes larger if increasing the zoom level.

    → zoom=10

    The sea level of the geolocation is defined by the "altitude" component. This entry specifies the sea level data in the location component of the image and is specified in the SI unit [m].

    → altitude=520

    The assignment of a street and house number of the geolocation is defined by the "street" component. This entry specifies the street name in the location component of the image.

    → street=Zellweg 2

    The assignment of a ZIP code of the geolocation is defined by the "zip" component. The entry specifies the postal code in the location component of the image.

    → zip=93464

    The city assignment of the geolocation is defined by the "city" component. The entry specifies the city in the location component of the image.

    → zip=Tiefenbach

    The state assignment of the geolocation is defined by the "state" component. In the case of the load information for the US, this entry specifies the state in the location component of the image.

    → state=NA

    The image activation is defined by the "picture" component. This specification determines whether the web service displays the resulting load information of the defined geolocation as a CSV data record or as an image of the map section with the location description and load output. The image output can be activated by using the value 1.

    → picture=1

    The image format is defined by the "picformat" component. The entry determines the format in which the raster image is displayed by the web service. The web service provides the formats JPG, PNG, and PDF. The format is defined by the abbreviation (jpg for the JPG format, png for the PNG format, and pdf - for the PDF format).

    → picformat=png

    The image width is defined by the "width" component. The entry specifies the width of the raster image in the unit [px].

    → width=1200

    The image height is defined by the "height" component. The entry controls the height of the raster image in the unit [px].

    → height=900

    The display language of the results is defined by the "language" component. The language is defined by an abbreviation (de - German, en - English, and so on).

    → language=en

    The identity of the user is defined by using the "login" and "hash" components. The "login" component describes the user's e-mail address and the "hash" component describes a hidden password. To ensure the login works, it is necessary to save the e-mail address in a valid Dlubal account. The associated "hash" component is obtained in your Dlubal account.


    → hash=xyz

    A request URL can finally be generated from these components and sent to our server.

    →,12.5896119&zoom=10&altitude=520&street=Zellweg 2&zip=93464&zip=Tiefenbach&picture=1&picformat=png&width=1200&height=900&language=en&

    After having sent the data, the server returns a map cutout with the address component and the load information as a raster graphic for the defined geolocation.

    Image 01 - Web Service Response (Raster Graphic)

    To be able to send such grid graphics to our server without any restrictions, a Geo-Zone Tool package is required. This Geo-Zone Tool package includes a certain number of data requests. Each query reduces the number of available requests purchased within the package.

    Since the web service is linked with the purchased data package, it is necessary to deal carefully with the identity components and request URL with regard to data protection. For example, you should always ensure that the request URL with the identity components is not provided to unauthorized third parties.

  • Answer

    The message indicates that Microsoft Visual C++ is missing or is corrupted on this computer. Please install the package from the Microsoft website, see the figure and the link:

    Image 01 - Microsoft Visual C++

  • Answer

    You can adjust the orientation of several different members or cross-sections at one by using multiselection in the following steps:

    • Select the desired members.
    • Use the shortcut menu of one of the objects to open the dialog box for editing members (see the figure).
    • Define a new member rotation angle.

  • Answer

    When calculating according to Theory III. Order, the membrane stiffness or the axial stiffness is also considered with regard to pure bending stress. For theory I and II. Order, only the bending stiffness is taken into account for pure bending stress.
  • Answer

    If we do not recommend the graphics card, this has no influence on the computing time as the graphics card is not relevant for the calculation. However, the display of the results can be affected.

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First Steps

First steps

We provide hints and tips to help you get started with the main programs RFEM and RSTAB.

Wind Simulation & Wind Load Generation

With the stand-alone program RWIND Simulation, wind flows around simple or complex structures can be simulated by means of a digital wind tunnel.

The generated wind loads acting on these objects can be imported to RFEM or RSTAB.

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