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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
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AnswerIn SHAPE-THIN 9, you can model cold-formed sections andeffective cross-sections according to EN 1993‑1‑3 and EN 1993‑1‑5. This is not possible in SHAPE‑THIN 8.
AnswerThe load cases marked in red, such as LC4 in the image, cannot be designed: Such a load case contains either no loading or imperfections only. When selecting the load case, a corresponding warning appears.
AnswerContrary to the graphic display, the CRANEWAY add-on module shows the resulting support forces or the centroid.
When creating a new element (a member, a surface, a solid), there is a corresponding function at the bottom of the dialog box that allows you to import the properties of another element (see Image 01).
After activating the function, click the element from which you want to transfer the properties. In addition to the geometry and the material, other settings, such as eccentricities or stiffness modifications, will be transferred as well.
By default, the imposed loads are applied in RSTAB without considering the stiffness modification. You can change this by deactivating the Calculation Perameters option shown in Image 01.
If you want to keep this option deactivated in new files by default, click the button at the bottom right.
According to the national provision of ÖNORM EN 1993‑1‑5:2007, Section 4.5.3(3), it is possible to abandon the increase of σcr,c, allowed in the note, with respect to the elastic critical buckling stress σcr,sl of the longitudinal stiffener adjacent to the compression edge as this results in very conservative results with regard to the resulting reduction factor ρc for the buckling analysis according to ÖNORM EN 1993‑1‑5, Section 4.5.4(1), Equation 4.13. Image 01 shows an example of a longitudinally stiffened buckling panel, designed according to the Austrian National Annex.
In DIN EN 1993‑1‑5, the note given in Section 4.5.3(3) applies, so it results in the following difference, see Image 02.
In RF‑/STEEL EC3, the uniaxial bending stress is always related to the local y-axis of a member and the local y‑axis of a member is always assumed as the major axis in the case of symmetric cross-sections, therefore it is only possible in such a case to change the cross-section description from "100/5" to "5/100", see the image. Thus, the stability analysis is performed accordingly.
AnswerA line hinge is nothing more than a line release where an object is released. In the case of a line release, a surface is released, and in the case of a line hinge, this is defined on the line of a surface. Therefore, the released surface is the surface on which the line hinge was defined.The forces always act on the original surface, that is, on the non-released surface. In the case of line hinges, this means that the forces act on the surface without a line hinge.Now, it is necessary to clarify the sign conventions, that is, in which direction the force acts on the surface. For this, it is necessary to know the local x-axis of the lines as well as the local z-axis of the surface. The internal line hinge coordinate system is to be understood as follows:
For the example shown in Image 01, this means the following:Example 1The x-axis of the line runs to the right.The z-axis of the surface is oriented downwards⇒ The y' axis of the line hinge is oriented away from the original surface (= a surface without a line hinge). Since the value is displayed with a negative sign, the force acts in the direction of the original surface.Example 2The x-axis of the line runs to the left.The z-axis of the surface is oriented downwards⇒ The y' axis of the line hinge is oriented towards the original surface (= a surface without a line hinge). Since the value is displayed with a positive sign, the force acts in the direction of the original surface.Example 3The x-axis of the line runs to the right.The z-axis of the surface is oriented downwards⇒ The y' axis of the line hinge is oriented towards the original surface (= a surface without a line hinge). Since the resulting value is displayed with a positive sign, the force acts in the direction of the original surface because Actio = Reactio.Example 1The x-axis of the line runs to the left.The z-axis of the surface is oriented downwards⇒ The y' axis of the line hinge is oriented away from the original surface (= a surface without a line hinge). Since the resulting value is displayed with a negative sign, the force acts in the direction of the original surface because Actio = Reactio.In contrast to the line releases, the axis system cannot be displayed for the line hinges. For the example shown in the image, it is recommended not to arrange the line hinge on the surface, on which the result is to be related, and to orient the x-axis of the line in such a way that its y-axis is oriented in the direction of the desired surface. For this, the coordinate system of the line applies.
- The axis x' points in the direction of the local x-axis of the line.
- The axis z' is the normal to the surface on which the line hinge was defined.
- The axis y' is the tangent to the surface plane, and results from the "right-hand rule."
AnswerFor this, it is first necessary to create a line of the desired shape in the surface at the location where the section is to be created. The section can then be arranged on this line (see Image 01). If no element with a stiffness is connected to this line and no load is applied, you have to first inform the mesh generator that this line should still be meshed (see Image 02). After the calculation, the results can be seen.If there are two result diagrams displayed, it is because the result is displayed from both sides of the line. In this case, you can set the smoothing of the internal forces to "Continuous Total." Then, these are smoothed over the lines and only one result diagram remains.
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Wind Simulation & Wind Load Generation
With the stand -alone program RWIND Simulation, you can simulate wind flows around simple or complex structures by means of a digital wind tunnel.
The generated wind loads acting on these objects can be imported to RFEM or RSTAB.
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