Commercial Complex Escalator Trusses in China
China’s increasing economic development has led to the construction of many large commercial complexes with an increasing demand for escalators with great heights, large spans, and without intermediate supports.
|Design, Structural Engineering, Construction||
Giant KONE Elevator Co., Ltd., China
Escalator Model Parameters
These types of escalators place strong demand on the structure’s required strength and stiffness. Giant KONE has developed an escalator type for exactly this purpose. From the project’s beginning, it utilized RFEM to contrast and compare various escalator designs. Ultimately, it decided to utilize a spacious quadruple single truss and further utilize RFEM to optimize the system, including the truss height and cross-sections.
The final design calculation results fully met the various requirements of EN 115 and EN 1993. In addition, the truss’s natural frequency was calculated to ensure tolerable vibrations for passengers walking on the escalator.
Further testing regarding the actual structure stiffness under a passenger load of 104.4 psf showed that the tolerance between the deformation calculated by RFEM and the deformation measured by the test differed by only 8%. The structure’s natural frequency was also substantially close to the measured frequency.
Giant KONE was pleasantly surprised by RFEM’s computing speed. According to Giant KONE, RFEM offers further advantages, including the quick modeling workflow and high-accuracy calculations. The structure’s future performance can also be researched before the prototype is created, which reduces the number of prototypes and shortens the development cycle. This has reduced development and manufacturing costs, resulting in significant advantages for the company.
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In RF-/STEEL EC3, the Window 1.4 Lateral Intermediate Supports offers you the option to define lateral intermediate supports at individual members. These supports are created from connected purlins and horizontal beams, for example, and increase the resistance against lateral-torsional buckling. Lateral intermediate supports can be entered either with a relative or an absolute distance.
RF-/PLATE-BUCKLING Add-on Module for RFEM/RSTAB | Plate Buckling Analysis for Plates with or Without Stiffeners According to 1993-1-5
RFEM/RSTAB Add-on Module RF-IMP/RSIMP | Generation of Geometric Replacement Imperfections and Pre-deformed Replacement Structures
Extension of the RF-/STEEL Warping Erosion module | Lateral -torsional buckling analyzes of members according to the second -order theory with 7 degrees of freedom
RFEM/RSTAB add-on module RF-/JOINTS Steel-Tower | Hinged connections of lattice tower members according to EC 3
RFEM/RSTAB add-on module RF-/JOINTS Steel-Column Base | Hinged and restrained column bases according to EC 3
RFEM/RSTAB add-on module RF-/STEEL BS | Design of steel members according to BS 5950 or BS EN 1993-1-1
RFEM add-on module RF-LOAD-HISTORY | Consideration of plastic deformations from previous load conditions
RFEM/RSTAB add-on module RF-/FE-LTB | Lateral -torsional buckling analysis according to theory II. Order (FEM)
SHAPE-THIN determines the effective cross-sections according to EN 1993-1-3 and EN 1993-1-5 for cold-formed sections. You can optionally check the geometric conditions for the applicability of the standard specified in EN 1993‑1‑3, Section 5.2.
The effects of local plate buckling are considered according to the method of reduced widths and the possible buckling of stiffeners (instability) is considered for stiffened sections according to EN 1993-1-3, Section 5.5.
As an option, you can perform an iterative calculation to optimize the effective cross-section.
You can display the effective cross-sections graphically.
Read more about designing cold-formed sections with SHAPE-THIN and RF-/STEEL Cold-Formed Sections in this technical article: Design of a Thin-Walled, Cold-Formed C-Section According to EN 1993-1-3.
- I design a cross-section created in the SHAPE‑THIN program by using the design add-on module, but the program shows the error message "ER006 Invalid type of c/t-part for cross-section of type General." What can I do?
- In RF‑/STEEL EC3, I get an error message saying that the node with a support does not exist in the set of members. What is the reason?
- How do I display some results of all load cases in the printout report, but other results of the selected load cases only?
- Is it also possible to subsequently deactivate the symbols for the FE mesh refinement in an existing graphic in a printout report?
- What is the difference between SHAPE‑THIN 9 and SHAPE‑THIN 8?
- SHAPE‑THIN calculates a very small shear area. Why?
- When calculating a connection using the FRAME‑JOINT Pro add-on module, a message appears saying that the value is out of the valid range (existing value: 108, minimum value 100, maximum value 100). What does this message mean?
- I have a trapezoidal roof structure supported by beams. However, the moments on the beams are smaller than they should be. What could be the reason for this?
- How can I export the effective lengths from the RF‑STABILITY add-on module to Excel?
- In the RF‑/STEEL EC3 add-on module, I have selected two bracings with the same size as the shear panel type in the "Parameters" window for a beam to be designed. Thus, the beam should be supported laterally in the middle. Why is the eigenvector arbitrary anyhow?