Capital C (Diamond Exchange), Amsterdam, the Netherlands
The former Diamond Exchange in Amsterdam, now known as Capital C, has been restored to its original glory after a radical renovation. This national monument not only been returned to its original shape, but also includes a new glass and steel roof.
Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Amsterdam, the Netherlands
ZJA Zwarts & Jansma Architecten
Amsterdam, the Netherlands
|Structural Analysis and Construction||
Delft, the Netherlands
Steel-Glass Dome Information
The structure was designed by the well-known architectural firm ZJA Zwarts & Jansma Architects. The project additionally won the prestigious MIPIM Award 2020 - Best Refurbished Building, Dutch Steel Award 2020, and German Design Award 2021.
The company Octatube carried out the structural design utilizing the FEM program RFEM. Octatube is a design-build planning and construction company for complex architectural structures. The main design focus was on the use of steel and glass to implement a sophisticated architectural look for the roof ranging from the design to the construction of the building.
Structure and Design
The roof structural system is best described as a cylindrical grid shell with two domes at either end. Because of the roof's adjacent building and the opening for the facade's entrance, portions had been removed from the grid shell. In principal, the dome has only one repetitive structural joint, but the free shape creates differences at each joint requiring unique parts. In total, around 1000 different steel components and 200 glass panels were used.
For complex projects, a flexible structural analysis and design software which is capable of modeling a wide range of unique elements is needed. Octatube utilized RFEM together with Rhinoceros (Rhino), Grasshopper and IDEA StatiCa. During the preliminary and final design phase, the architect's Rhino-Grasshopper line model was used as the starting point. In this model, the main lines and secondary lines were set.
The model's grid lines and curvature were thoroughly analyzed and optimized. The line model and the structural loads from Grasshopper were imported into RFEM where the model could be structurally optimized. The loads on the structure were generated with a direct connection between Rhino and a user-defined interface. For the indirect connection between Grasshopper and RFEM, Excel was used. The unique design requirement included the square glass surfaces to be completely flat, similar to the exterior of a diamond.
The rectangular hollow cross-section properties were determined with RFEM and IDEA StatiCa. Since the rotational stiffness was very important, two models of the entire structure and joints were created in order to adequately model the stiffness and strength of the grid shell. These models were used as an upper and lower boundary for the deformations and stiffness. The upper limit model included all joints completely rigid to determine the load effects on the joints.
The lower limit for the rotational stiffness was determined iteratively between RFEM and IDEA CONNECTION, for each joint type. This flexible joint model was used to check of the stiffness and stability of the grid shell. The supporting structure located under the grid shell was also included to properly determine loads. This was necessary to avoid the time-consuming and iterative process of determining the vertical supports' spring stiffnesses which would vary for for each load case.
Project LocationWeesperplein 4B
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Structure stability is not a new phenomenon when referring to steel design. The Canadian steel design standard CSA S16 and the most recent 2019 release is no exception.
Calculation and Design of Two-Story Building: Analysis of Two Options (Steel-Concrete Composite Structure and Modular Construction)
SHAPE-THIN determines the effective cross-sections according to EN 1993-1-3 and EN 1993-1-5 for cold-formed sections. You can optionally check the geometric conditions for the applicability of the standard specified in EN 1993‑1‑3, Section 5.2.
The effects of local plate buckling are considered according to the method of reduced widths and the possible buckling of stiffeners (instability) is considered for stiffened sections according to EN 1993-1-3, Section 5.5.
As an option, you can perform an iterative calculation to optimize the effective cross-section.
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Read more about designing cold-formed sections with SHAPE-THIN and RF-/STEEL Cold-Formed Sections in this technical article: Design of a Thin-Walled, Cold-Formed C-Section According to EN 1993-1-3.
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Programs Used for Structural Analysis
Structural engineering software for finite element analysis (FEA) of planar and spatial structural systems consisting of plates, walls, shells, members (beams), solids and contact elements
Stress analysis of steel surfaces and members
Design of steel members according to Eurocode 3
Stability analysis according to the eigenvalue method