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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
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Yes, you can activate this in the "Details" dialog box of TIMBER Pro (manual p. 39).
This reduced stiffness is considered according to the equivalent member method in the buckling analysis.
In this case, select the material of the European standard group as there is no separate material standard for Sweden at the moment, see the image.
The setting for the deformation coefficient kdef can already be made in the model data. There, you can specify the deformation coefficient manually or select it based on the service class.
The deformationfactor k def is considered in the load combinations for serviceability in the program (similar to DIN EN 1995-1-1, 2.2.3).
For the design of mixed structures made of timber materials, see FAQ 4325 .
According to DIN EN 1993‑1‑1:2010‑12 , Annex BB.1.1, the buckling length may be used in the individual bracing under certain conditions. This means that in this case, the individual members, not a set of members, can be applied with the effective length factors specified in the standard.
Since this approach only considers the local failure, it is necessary to analyze the global failure of the entire structure. For this design, the set of members must have the corresponding imperfection. Under certain conditions, the design can be performed on single members, depending on the model (for example, a tower), or the set of members must be analyzed for a failure from the plane (the truss), as in the attached example.
StandardID and AnnexID can be easily displayed at any time by using the following macro:
You can find this macro in the archive of the product website (see Links).
Here is an overview of the current attachments:
StandardID AnnexID Name
DIN 0 Germany
ÖNORM 1 Austria
CSN 2 Czech Republic
STN 3 Slovakia
PN 4 Poland
SIST 5 Slovenia
DK 6 Denmark
UNI 7 Italy
NEN 8 Netherlands
SFS 9 Finland
SS 10 Sweden
NF 11 France
BS 12 United Kingdom
CEN 13 European Union
BDS 14 Bulgaria
CYS 15 Cyprus
LST 16 Lithuania
SR 17 Romania
SS 18 Singapore
NBN 19 Belgium
NP 20 Portugal
UNE 21 Spain
MAL 22 Malaysia
NS 23 Norway
LU 24 Luxembourg
ELOT 25 Greece
For the design of a ring beam, I usually have Mz moments, which causes the formation of the compression and tension zone on the right and left of the cross-section. However, the reinforcement in CONCRETE is arranged at the top and bottom of the cross-section. How can I set the reinforcement to be arranged on the right and left?
In the RF‑/TIMBER Pro add-on module, you can perform the shear force reduction for Eurocode 5 (EN 1995‑1‑1).
The regulations for the reduction are only covered in the following National Annexes:
- DIN EN NCI 6.1.7 (NA.5)
- ÖNORM EN 6.1.7(2)
- SFS EN RIL 205-1-2009, 6.1.7
Therefore, the provisions of DIN EN are used for all other National Annexes by default!
It is possible to determine the width of the support by using the distance from a member start to a support edge ls.
Yes, this is possible with the RF‑/JOINTS Timber - Steel to Timber add-on module. You can design the connection of two diagonals if they are connected with steel plates and dowels, for example. For this, it is reasonable to use the "Main member only" joint type.
After selecting the node in the program, the connection is still marked as insufficiently defined due to the steel bottom flange.
You can now deactivate both steel members to perform the design for the connection of the two diagonals only.
This design is possible in the add-on module.
From the internal forces solely, no optimization can be derived: Whether a cross-section is sufficient or not can only be determined by a calculation according to the respective standard (using the add-on modules).
The cross-section design and/or stability analysis and/or SLS design may require a modification of the cross-section. Furthermore, the cross-section modification also changes the stiffness of the entire structure or also affects the adjacent components (for statically indeterminate systems). Therefore, a fully automatic cross-section optimization cannot be solved by the program.
It is not possible to set that the cross-section of an element should be changed in the way that the adjacent structural components are not overstressed or that an entirely optimized structure is found. It is only possible to optimize the component that is currently subjected to design. For this, see the online manual of RF‑/STEEL EC3 (which shows the member design).
In the case of surface components, only the surface thickness can be automatically optimized from the stress analysis.
The "RF‑/STEEL Cold-Formed Sections" add-on module allows you to design cold-formed L‑sections, Z‑sections, C‑sections, channels, top‑hat sections, and CL‑sections from the cross-section library.Furthermore, it is also possible to design general cold-formed (not perforated) SHAPE‑THIN 9 cross-sections.
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Wind Simulation & Wind Load Generation
With the stand -alone program RWIND Simulation, you can simulate wind flows around simple or complex structures by means of a digital wind tunnel.
The generated wind loads acting on these objects can be imported to RFEM or RSTAB.
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