Further Information

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• I create a picture for the time in DYNAM PRO, and paste it via the clipboard in the printout report, this picture appears very blurred. What can I do about it?

In this case, you have the option to print the image in the timeline diagram directly into the printout report. Here you proceed as described in the picture.
• Is there a possibility in the module RF-DYNAM Pro to generate a "response spectrum according to standard" with user-defined parameters?

Yes the possibility exists. In many standards we have implemented this possibility. Here you can select the option "Other" as subsoil class and thus adapt some parameters according to your wishes.

The following annexes to EN 1998-1 have this option: CEN, NBN, CSN, DIN, UNI, NP, STN, CYS, BS, NS and NF.

• With the additional module "RF- / DYNAM Pro" there are the parameters modal mass, participation factor and substitute mass. The manual contains the formulas, the meaning and the explanation, as well as usage would be just as helpful.

Modal mass

Each multi-mass system can usually be represented by a single-mass system. When you do this transformation, you need the modal mass of the system. This mass is needed to generate the frequency of the equivalent single-frequency oscillator.

Beiteilungsfaktor

This factor can also be negative because it is composed of the substitute mass at a node and the associated displacement due to the eigenform. If the deflection is in the negative direction, the participation factor becomes negative. The replacement mass factor is then still positive, since the participation factor is squared. (see formula)

equivalent mass

The equivalent mass of a system is a part of the total mass which is excited due to the vibration of the multi-mass oscillator. The equivalent mass of a system can be between zero and the total mass. The replacement mass factor is only the quotient of the total mass to the substitute mass. As a rule, this makes it possible to check more quickly what proportion of the excited mass of the respective eigenform is. Should it happen that the substitute mass factor is greater than 1, one should check the discretization of the system and, if necessary, refine the division of the nodes or the FE mesh.

For an earth analysis, the substitute mass factor and the substitute mass are usually decisive, since these values are used to calculate the dynamic equivalent loads on the building.
• How do I superimpose generated equivalent loads from the seismic analysis?

When calculating by using the Equivalent Load Method, an equivalent load is determined from the individual mode shapes as the name implies. After a successful determination, you can export these equivalent loads in RFEM. RFEM automatically creates load cases in this way.

These exported load cases are now displayed in a result combination is superimposed. One always uses a quadratic superposition for earthquake storm loads. Two types of superposition are possible here. First, the frequently used SRSS Rule and the CQC Rule. All load cases from the earthquake will always be considered as Stöndig and superimposed according to the respective regulations. The calculation rules are governed by the common standards.
• After using the DYNAM Pro module, I get the following warning during the calculation: 'Incorrect addition of load cases in the result combination!' What does it mean?

The message about the incorrect addition of load cases should be considered as an indication: It appears when a nonlinear structure (for example, including tension members) is superimposed in a RC.

Eventually, there can be a different structural system for each load case as different members are effective. In DYNAM Pro, your system is linearized when using the response spectrum analysis. Therefore, this message is always displayed when nonlinear elements exist in the model.

• How can I consider the second-order analysis for seismic design?

In RF‑DYNAM Pro ‑ Natural Vibrations, it is possible to import the geometrical stiffness matrix. You can use it to consider the second‑order analysis. The equivalent lateral loads for earthquakes generated with the RF-DYNAM Pro - Equivalent Loads add-on module take this stiffness modification into account.

In the attached file, it is described when the second-order analysis according to EC 8 has to be considered and which options are offered by the Rf-DYNAM Pro modules.

Annexes
Second-order analysis.pdf (471 kB)

• How can I consider tension members in RF-/DYNAM Pro?

To study a system with tension members in RF-/DYNAM Pro it is recommended to define several Natural Vibration Cases (NVCs) and to use the stiffness modification options. The natural vibration analysis is a linear analysis of frequencies and mode shapes, tension members are considered as trusses in RF-/DYNAM Pro and can cope with tension and compression to the same degree. To estimate how the frequencies change when the tension members fail you can import this initial state into RF-/DYNAM Pro via a Load Case where you deactivate the members manually or via a Load Case where the tension members failed due to the load state. The defined NVCs can be assigned to Dynamic Load Cases (DLCs) to perform, for example, a response spectrum anaylsis with the export of equivalent loads (add-on module RF-/DYNAM Pro Equivalent Loads).

The equivalent loads that are exported into Load Cases in the main program RFEM / RSTAB are evaluated with consideration of all nonlinearities, in some cases this can lead to conflicts. An example is illustrated in the picture. In the first case no stiffness modifications are used in RF-/DYNAM Pro and therefore all members are considered in the dynamic analysis, but in RFEM / RSTAB the tension member fail due to equivalent loads. When you want to perform a completely linear analysis you must deactivate the nonlinearities in RFEM / RSTAB. In the second and third illustrated case an initial condition is imported where the tension members are not available. The equivalent loads are therefore based on the same structure as the structure for the calculation of internal forces and deformations.

In the response spectrum analysis or the time history analysis with the add-on module RF-/DYNAM Pro Forced Vibrations the modified stiffness of the Natural Vibration Cases (NVCs) is also used for the calculation of further results. The overall linear analysis with consideration of initial conditions is performed within the module RF-/DYNAM Pro.
• Both RF-/DYNAM Pro - Forced Vibrations and RF-/DYNAM Pro - Equivalent Loads preform the multi-modal response spectrum analysis. What is the difference?

The RF-/DYNAM Pro - Equivalent Loads add-on module analyzes structural equivalent loads and export them into load cases. Further analysis is performed in RFEM or RSTAB then. Result combinations are created.

The RF-/DYNAM Pro - Forced Vibrations add-on module provides the multi-point response spectrum analysis. It means that buildings on different supports can excite different situations. Only the final result combination is created here, so you receive no equivalent load and the traceability is more difficult.

• Do the DYNAM Pro add-on modules perform a nonlinear analysis as well?

No, the calculation is always linear. All nonlinarities (for example failure at tension, nonlinear material, etc.) are ignored. Cables or tension members can be replaced by the "Truss" member type, for example.

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