# Imperfections According to EN 1993-1-1 Clause 5.3.2: Bow Imperfection

### Technical Article

According to EN 1993‑1‑1 [1], it is necessary to use the equivalent geometric imperfections with values that reflect the possible effects of all types of imperfections. EN 1993‑1‑1, Clause 5.3, specifies basic imperfections for the global analysis of frames as well as member imperfections.

#### Global Analysis of Frames

Even though the influences of bow imperfections in the equations for stability designs of members according to Clause 6.3 are already included, it is nevertheless important to consider a bow imperfection in the global analysis of frames if a structure or component is present which is sensitive to bow imperfections. This is defined in the German DIN standard DIN EN 1993‑1‑1:2010‑12 Clause 5.3.2 (6).

Equation (5.8) is used to decide if a member is sensitive to bow imperfections:

$\overline{\mathrm\lambda}\;>\;0.5\;\cdot\;\sqrt{\frac{\mathrm A\;\cdot\;{\mathrm f}_{\mathrm y}}{{\mathrm N}_{\mathrm{Ed}}}}$

where

$\overline{\mathrm\lambda}\;=\;\sqrt{\frac{{\mathrm N}_{\mathrm{pl}}}{{\mathrm N}_{\mathrm{cr}}}}\;=$ degree of slenderness of structural component in considered plane which is determined by assuming hinged support on both sides

and

${\mathrm N}_{\mathrm{cr}}\;=\;\frac{\mathrm\pi²\;\cdot\;\mathrm E\;\cdot\;\mathrm I}{{\mathrm s}_{\mathrm k}²}$

results in the known differentiation by using the member coefficient from DIN 18800:

${\mathrm s}_{\mathrm k}\;\cdot\;\sqrt{\frac{{\mathrm N}_{\mathrm{Ed}}}{\mathrm E\;\cdot\;\mathrm I}}\;=\;\mathrm\varepsilon\;>\;0.5\;\cdot\;\mathrm\pi\;\approx\;1.6$

#### Member Imperfections

**Flexural buckling**

The recommended bow imperfection's values result from DIN EN 1993‑1‑1:2010‑12 Clause 5.3.2 (3) Table 5.1 as follows:

Buckling curve according to DIN EN 1993‑1‑1:2010‑12, Table 6.2 | Cross-section design | |
---|---|---|

Elastic e_{0,d}/L | Plastic e_{0,d}/L | |

a_{0} | 1/350 | 1/300 |

a | 1/300 | 1/250 |

b | 1/250 | 1/200 |

c | 1/200 | 1/150 |

d | 1/150 | 1/100 |

If the determination of internal forces of the entire structure is based on the elastic analysis and if a cross-section design according to DIN EN 1993‑1‑1:2010‑12 Clause 6.2.1 (7) Equation (6.2) is performed, Table NA.2 of DIN EN 1993‑1‑1/NA:2015‑08 [2] can be used:

Buckling curve according to DIN EN 1993‑1‑1:2010‑12, Table 6.2 | Cross-section design | |
---|---|---|

Elastic e_{0,d}/L | Plastic e_{0,d}/L | |

a_{0} | 1/600 | As for elastic, but M _{pl}/M_{el}-fold |

a | 1/550 | |

b | 1/350 | |

c | 1/250 | |

d | 1/150 |

**Lateral-torsional buckling**

According to DIN EN 1993‑1‑1:2010‑12 Clause 5.3.4 (3), for the torsional buckling analysis of elements subjected to bending according to the second-order theory, the imperfection as bow imperfection about the weak axis with the value k ∙ e_{0,d} (e_{0,d} see flexural buckling) has to be assumed. The value of k = 0.5 is recommended. It is not necessary to apply any further torsional imperfection.

An economical approach is possible according to DIN EN 1993‑1‑1/NA:2015‑08 for I-sections. According to NDP of 5.3.4(3) the bow imperfection can be assumed with the values of Table NA.3 instead of k ∙ e_{0,d}.

Cross-section | Dimensions | Elastic cross-section ratio e _{0,d}/L | Plastic cross-section ratio e _{0,d}/L |
---|---|---|---|

Rolled I-sections | h/b ≤ 2.0 | 1/500 | 1/400 |

h/b > 2.0 | 1/400 | 1/300 | |

Welded I-sections | h/b ≤ 2.0 | 1/400 | 1/300 |

h/b > 2.0 | 1/300 | 1/200 |

The specified values have to be doubled in the range of 0.7 ≤ λ_{LT} ≤ 1.3. This requirement goes back to a dissertation of 2008 at the German Ruhr University in Bochum and has been added to the updated DIN 18800:2008‑11.

#### Literature

#### Links

### Write Comment...

### Write Comment...

#### Contact us

Do you have questions or need advice?

Contact our free e-mail, chat, or forum support or find various suggested solutions and useful tips on our FAQ page.