CLT Residential Building in Girona, Spain
EGOIN SA was awarded a timber design project for 35 new CLT apartments in Girona, Spain. Cross-laminated timber (CLT) was selected as the building material due to its sustainability, ability to filter CO2, and the architectural design freedom.
Blazquez Guanter SLP
Estudi M103 SLPEGOIN
Additionally, the complete prefabrication of the CLT panels reduced the assembly time to only 6 weeks. Thermal bridging was also reduced which increased the moisture control of the panels to ensure an optimal indoor climate.
The Dlubal customers EGOIN and Estudi M103 SLP cooperated together for the design process under the responsibility of Blazquez Guanter SLP. The program RFEM including the add-on module RF-LAMINATE were used to consider the orthotropic stiffness and strength for the structural analysis and design. CLT has the capacity to withstand bidirectional loads, which help to increase the stiffness compared to a uniaxial structural system.
In RFEM, line hinges based on the actual connection stiffness and nonlinear behavior could easily be considered. The line force diagrams were also produced in RFEM for further consideration in the RF-LIMITS add-on module when designing the connections. The RF-DYNAM Pro add-on module was utilized to calculate the natural vibrations and to perform a modal response spectrum analysis according to the Spanish standard NCSE-02.
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- General stress analysis
- Graphical and numerical results of stresses and stress ratios fully integrated in RFEM
- Flexible design with different layer compositions
- High efficiency due to few entries required
- Flexibility due to detailed setting options for calculation basis and extent
- Based on the selected material model and the layers contained, a local overall stiffness matrix of the surface in RFEM is generated. The following material models are available:
- Hybrid (for combinations of material models)
- Option to save frequently used layer structures in a database
- Determination of basic, shear and equivalent stresses
- In addition to the basic stresses, the required stresses according to DIN EN 1995-1-1 and the interaction of those stresses are available as results.
- Stress analysis for structural parts of almost any shape
- Equivalent stresses calculated according to different approaches:
- Shape modification hypothesis (von Mises)
- Maximum shear stress criterion (Tresca)
- Maximum principal stress criterion (Rankine)
- Principal strain criterion (Bach)
- Calculation of transversal shear stresses according to Mindlin, Kirchhoff, or user-defined specifications
- Serviceability limit state design by checking surface displacements
- User-defined specifications of limit deflections
- Possibility to consider layer coupling
- Detailed results of individual stress components and ratios in tables and graphics
- Results of stresses for each layer in the model
- Parts list of designed surfaces
- Possible coupling of layers entirely without shear
- How are the signs for the release results of a line release and line hinges interpreted?
- How can I create a curved or arched section?
- After the design with RF‑/TIMBER Pro, I optimized a cross-section. Why is the utilization of the optimized cross-section exceeded now?
- Is it possible to design the support pressure or the compression perpendicular to the grain in RX‑TIMBER?
- Why are the stresses of the 90 ° orientation not displayed in RF-LAMINATE for a layer with the orthotropic direction 90 ° for σb, 90?
- How can I get the member end forces to design the connections?
- I design timber components. The deformations of load combinations deviate from the manual calculation exactly by the factor of the material partial safety factor. Why?
- How can I run the RX‑TIMBER Frame plugin? I did not find it in the Add-on Modules menu nor in Project Navigator - Data.
- I have a question about the results of the serviceability limit state design: How is the increment of the dead load by the factor 1.8 and the imposed load by 1.48 explained in the result combinations for the SLS design?
- Where can I adjust the effective length lef according to Table 6.1 of Eurocode 5 in the TIMBER Pro add-on module?
Programs Used for Structural Analysis
Structural engineering software for finite element analysis (FEA) of planar and spatial structural systems consisting of plates, walls, shells, members (beams), solids and contact elements
Timber design according to Eurocode 5, SIA 265 and/or DIN 1052
Deflection analysis and stress design of laminate and sandwich surfaces
Dynamic analysis of natural frequencies and mode shapes of member, surface, and solid models
Dynamic and seismic analysis including time history analysis and multi-modal response spectrum analysis
Seismic and static load analysis using the multi-modal response spectrum analysis
Comparison of results with defined limit values