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  • Answer

    There are basically two options:

    • The use of member eccentricities, see the article Considering eccentricities of members and surfaces
    • In the case of, for example, differently defined member hinges in combination with different dimensions of offsets, the use of couplings or rigid members may help, see Figure 1 - Solid model and Figure 2 - Wireframe model
    Figure 01 - Offset by Rigid Members - Solid Model

    Figure 02 - Offset by Rigid Members - wireframe model

  • Answer

    In RF-CONCRETE Members (RFEM) or CONCRETE (RSTAB), the offset dimension is taken into account by default when determining the reinforcement proposal.

    The difference between You can see the required reinforcement with and without offset dimension when you see the results in the result navigator:
    - A s, -z (above)
    - A s, + z (below)
    - A s, -z (above), comp.
    - A s, + z (below), comp.
    Show.

    In A s, -z (above), comp. and A s, + z (below), erf. the offset dimension is included.
    See also picture 1.

    For the reinforcement proposal in RF-CONCRETE Members or CONCRETE, the anchoring length for a "straight iron" is considered by default. The setting can be found in the input mask 1.6. See picture 2.

    The anchoring length is from A s, -z (top), erf. and A s, + z (below), erf. determined. So the offset is also included here.
  • Answer

    Basically, there is the question whether the consideration of a split-level slab in the structural model is relevant or not.

    If the split-level slab is to be taken into account for the determination of internal forces, it can be modelled as a surface model (folded plate structure, see Figure 01). There are two horizontal surfaces (ceilings) and one vertical surface (offset of height). The surfaces can then be designed in RF‑CONCRETE Surfaces.

    Optionally, the internal forces in surfaces occurring in the split-level slab can also be integrated as member internal forces. For this, the member type of 'result beam' is recommended (see Figure 02). The internal forces of result beams can then be used for the design in RF‑CONCRETE Members (see Figure 03).

    You can find more information about using result beams for the ceiling design in two technical articles of our Knowledge Base under Links below.

  • Answer

    Since program version 5.19, you can directly consider the eccentric load introduction in RFEM by using the member loads (see Figure 1). The eccentric load introduction can be used for the load type "Force".

    Alternatively (for example in RSTAB), a coupling by means of a rigid member can be defined to take account of external concentrated loads that act eccentrically on the member. The rigid member is to be connected perpendicularly to the corresponding member. The length of the rigid member corresponds to the amount of the eccentricity (see Figure 2).

    Alternatively, you can enter the torsional moment due to the eccentric load introduction as external loading (also for eccentric member loads). Thus, the eccentric action would be taken into account and the definition of a rigid member would not be necessary (see Figure 3).

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Wind Simulation & Wind Load Generation

With the stand-alone program RWIND Simulation, wind flows around simple or complex structures can be simulated by means of a digital wind tunnel.

The generated wind loads acting on these objects can be imported to RFEM or RSTAB.

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