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• ### How can I teach the program that it automatically increases the longitudinal reinforcement when calculating the deflection of the slabs so that the specified deflection is met?

An automatic increase of the reinforcement for the deformation analysis is not possible. As soon as the deformation calculation is based on the determination of the stiffness, it is not expedient to develop an algorithm that B. increases the reinforcement at the point of maximum deformation. Such a procedure would not result in the deformation being reduced.

Therefore, the reinforcement must be increased manually.

• ### I calculate the deformations at time 0 and at time infinite. The deformations at the time infinite seem plausible to me. The deformations at time 0 seem significantly smaller and therefore implausible. What is the reason?

Please check if the structure tears due to pure load. It is possible that the increase in deformations is mainly caused by creep and shrinkage, which are not active at time 0. In the nonlinear calculation, shrinkage is considered as a strain load, which can cause additional stresses.
• ### How can I quickly transfer a modified value to the other rows in the input table of an add-on module?

In addition to the standard functions, all input tables in the program also have the block functions. They allow you to edit marked numbers and number fields in the table in one step.

You can access the block functions by right-clicking in the table:
1. Add - A value is added to or subtracted from the selected cells with a numerical value.
2. Multiply - Cells with a numerical value are multiplied by a factor.
3. Divide - Cells with a numerical value are divided by a divisor.
4. Set - The value of the first selected cell is set to all cells in the selection.
5. Generate - Cells between the first and the last selected row are generated by interpolation of both edge values.

The "Set" function allows you to quickly transfer a value to other rows.

These functions are an ideal tool for changing the existing node coordinates to a new geometry, for linear extrapolation of unit load entries to any value, for unifying the values, ​​and much more.
• ### For the design of a ring beam, I usually have Mz moments, which causes the formation of the compression and tension zone on the right and left of the cross-section. However, the reinforcement in CONCRETE is arranged at the top and bottom of the cross-section. How can I set the reinforcement to be arranged on the right and left?

In this case, the beam must be rotated by 90 ° (see Figure 01) so that the Mz moments become the My moments.

Then, the reinforcement is arranged laterally as desired, see Figure 02.

• ### When calculating deformations in RF‑CONCRETE Members, I get jumps in the deformation diagram. Why?

In RF‑CONCRETE Members, the deformation in the cracked state is determined by using a coefficient "ζ" (according to EN 1992‑1‑1, 7.4.3). For this simplified method, the coefficient ζ is only determined once per member. The linear deformation is upscaled according to the governing location in the member.

In this context, it is possible to determine different coefficients ζ for the individual members. When scaling the linear deformation, jumps occur between the individual members.

To avoid this effect, it is recommended to use sets of members.

• ### I get Error 108 when designing steel stress in RF‑CONCRETE Surfaces. Why?

Error 108) appears if the stress analysis cannot be performed because the design situation preset for the design has not been defined.

By default, RF‑CONCRETE Surfaces requires a load or a load case from the "characteristic design situation" for the stress analysis of the reinforcing steel. If it has not been defined, the design is not performed and the corresponding error message is displayed.

To avoid this, select a "characteristic load" in the "Serviceability Limit State" tab of Window "1.1 General Data." See the video.

As an alternative, you can change the detailed settings for the serviceability limit state design, so that the stress analysis is performed with a quasi-permanent load, for example. However, this change of the default setting or standard specifications is at the discretion of the user.

• ### I do not obtain any deformations in the results of the calculation with RF‑CONCRETE Surfaces. What can be the reason?

First, check if the "design of deformation" has been activated in the settings for the calculation of the SLS designs.

Furthermore, check whether a load for the "quasi-permanent" design situation has been specified in the "Serviceability" tab of Window 1.1. By default, the calculation of deformations in RF‑CONCRETE Surfaces (with RF‑CONCRETE Deflect or RF‑CONCRETE NL) requires a quasi-permanent load.

• ### When determining internal forces in RFEM, I obtain compression axial forces that do not arise in the design internal forces in the design in RF‑CONCRETE Surfaces. Why, what is the reason?

For the structural components that are mostly subjected to compression, the preset optimization of the design internal forces can result in the compression axial force being assigned to the stiffening concrete strut.

In such cases, it is recommended to deactivate the optimization of design internal forces and not to use the optimization of design internal forces.

With this setting, the internal forces are not optimized and the compression force arises in the design internal forces. In the example shown, the compression force is absorbed by concrete in both situations.

• ### Is it also possible to reduce the shear force on a support or perform design with the shear force at a distance d to the support in RF‑CONCRETE Surfaces?

No, the function for the shear force reduction that you know from RF‑CONCRETE Members is not available in RF‑CONCRETE Surfaces. RF‑CONCRETE Surfaces always performs the design in the respective FE mesh nodes or grid points.

• ### When performing "manual definition of the reinforcement areas" in RF‑CONCRETE Surfaces, do I have to completely reinforce the entire structural component manually? Or does RF‑CONCRETE Surfaces apply the required reinforcement in the areas where I have not performed the manual definition?

In the first instance, the determination of the statically required reinforcement (ULS) is independent of the manual specification of the reinforcement areas.

However, if you want to perform the serviceability limit state checks, you have to manually assign the reinforcement to all surfaces selected for design in RF‑CONCRETE Surfaces.

Otherwise, RF‑CONCRETE Surfaces does not apply any reinforcement at the location for the SLS design. The statically required reinforcement is not applied in this case.

In the result windows 3.x, a message is displayed (for the unreinforced surfaces), saying that the reinforcement definition is not sufficient. No check is possible these surfaces.

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#### First Steps

We provide hints and tips to help you get started with the main programs RFEM and RSTAB.

#### Wind Simulation & Wind Load Generation

With the stand-alone program RWIND Simulation, wind flows around simple or complex structures can be simulated by means of a digital wind tunnel.

The generated wind loads acting on these objects can be imported to RFEM or RSTAB.

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