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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
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AnswerThe design points in CRANEWAY have been transferred according to the standard. The stresses are calculated for the following locations:
These points are not displayed in the cross-section graphic in the CRANEWAY program. However, there is always a stress point at the design points 0 and 2 for which result values can be directly output.
- Design point 0
Section of flange at the web edge or at the start of the rounding
- Design point 1
Flange at load application point (this can be checked as wheel spacing in Window 1.4)
- Design point 2
- Design point 0
AnswerIn the CRANEWAY program, you can select the display of load combinations for the individual design situations in the middle of Window 1.5 Load Combinations.
To do this, select the checkbox in Table 1.2 Geometry in column J (see Figure 01).Then, it is possible to view the release definitions in the 'Hinges' tab (see Figure 02).If you want to modify the hinges, you have to set the support type to 'User-Defined' in the 'Support' tab. The releases can then be freely defined (see Figure 03).
Yes, the RWIND Simulation program is generally designed and can implement any model of RFEM or RSTAB.
Figure 03 - RFEM Model
For a steel structure consisting of pure member elements, the program creates a coherent, voluminous envelope of the member surfaces for the numerical wind tunnel. The result of this modeling for the simulation depends on the available cross-sections and the mesh settings. Due to the wind current, corresponding surface pressures result on this surface layer.
Figure 02 - Surface Pressure on OpenFOAM Mesh
After having calculated the wind flow, the program sums the surface pressures of the member units and returns a corresponding equivalent load (single, uniform, or trapezoidal) for each member axis.
Figure 04 - Options for Member Load Distribution
These loads are applied in RFEM or RSTAB for the further calculation of internal forces.
Figure 05 - Equivalent Load from RWIND Simulation
In RFEM, the interface application 'Simulate and Generate Wind Loads' makes it possible to exchange member, surface, and solid elements, and in RSTAB to exchange the bar elements.
To avoid generating a too fine mesh along with a corresponding long calculation time, the program simulates all members with a rectangular cross-section as standard. The size of the rectangular cross-section is selected in such a way that the real cross-section geometry is barely included.
By deactivating the option 'Export Optimized Member Topology', you can avoid this additional optimization of the model and allow consideration of the real cross-section geometry within existing cross-section settings.
If the exact representation of the cross-section geometry requires more than 1000000 elements, the interface automatically changes to the simplified rectangular section display of the cross-sections.
AnswerThe internal forces and deformations are determined according to the second-order analysis for flexural-torsional buckling taking into account 7 degrees of freedom. For a linear calculation of deformations, a vertical/horizontal load results in only one vertical/horizontal deformation. Since the internal forces refer to the deformed system and it is a nonlinear analysis, this is not valid for the second-order analysis for flexural-torsional buckling.
The deformations in the shear center can be checked in RSTAB and RFEM with the RF-/FE-LTB add-on module (see Figure 02). The deformations that additionally result from the displacements or rotations can only be controlled with a surface model in RFEM.
You can control the detail categories in the input dialog box "1.3 Cross-Section" and in the "Edit Detail Categories" dialog box.The specified standard values can be selected here. Unfortunately, it is not possible to manually adjust these values.
AnswerIn CRANEWAY the internal forces are typically displayed only for max and min locations. If you want to get each internal force on each x-location, then you have to run the detailed calculation and to disable the option "Show only governing results". How to do it, we show you in the short video.
AnswerIf stiffeners are welded into the crane runway, the corresponding notch category according to EN 1993-1-9, Table 8.4, detail 7 has to be considered for the fatigue design. This is implemented in CRANEWAY by creating additional stress points at the connection point of the stiffeners to the section. They can be adjusted manually in the settings for the detail categories depending on the geometry of the stiffener.During the fatigue design of the craneway girder, the design of the axial stress range is additionally performed in the newly created stress points for the x-locations on which a stiffener is provided.
AnswerIn the case of long crane runways and many cranes, the large number of load combinations can lead to a long calculation time. The following settings affect the calculation time significantly:
Calculation method for determining the internal forces
The fast calculation type may therefore be useful for the preliminary design.
- Fast calculation (calculation of all load combinations according to the 1st-order analysis, then calculation of the governing load combinations according to second-order analysis for torsional buckling)
- Detailed calculation (calculation of all load combinations according to second-order analysis for torsional buckling)
Maximum target length of the finite elementsThe maximum length of the finite elements generated for the calculation according to the second-order analysis for torsional buckling can be entered within a range of 100 mm to 2500 mm. The calculation time can be increased significantly by the finer division of finite elements.Thus, you should select a reasonable length of the finite elements for an optimized calculation time depending on the structural system. Usually, 8 elements for each girder span are enough to calculate the deformations with a deviation of less than 5% relative to the precise solution.
Number of load combinationsYou can use a reasonable setting of the load increment to control the number of generated load combinations. When entering the load increment, the generated number of crane load positions and load combinations is already displayed in a preview. A small load increment may result in many load combinations that take accordingly more time in the calculation.
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Wind Simulation & Wind Load Generation
With the stand-alone program RWIND Simulation, wind flows around simple or complex structures can be simulated by means of a digital wind tunnel.
The generated wind loads acting on these objects can be imported to RFEM or RSTAB.
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