# Knowledge Base

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1. ## Designing End Plate Connection of Hollow Sections Under Tension According to the CIDECT Method and by Means of the FEM Model

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A site joint consisting of hollow sections with end plates will be designed. It is the bottom chord of a truss which has to be divided for transport reasons.

2. ## Internal Forces Diagram/Surface Stresses - Smoothing Options

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The deformations of the FE nodes are always the first result of an FE calculation. Based on these deformations and the stiffness of the elements, it is possible to calculate strains, internal forces, and stresses.

3. ## Dynamic Combinations (SRSS as "Equivalent Linear Combination")

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Result Combinations exported from RF‑/DYNAM Pro - Equivalent Loads are generated by the combination of the modal responses employing the SRSS rule modified as “equivalent linear combination.” When result combinations are used in RF‑/STEEL there are two options available for the calculation of stresses. Either the results from the result combinations are used directly, this is done for each maximum and minimum controlling internal force. Or the stresses are calculated from the single load cases and then the combination rule is applied again by RF‑/STEEL.

4. ## Smoothing Options

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Just like in the Display navigator of RFEM, you can set the distribution of internal forces within surfaces also in RF‑STEEL Surfaces. Since the result of the FEM calculation is always deformations, the corresponding forces will be recalculated. It means that the internal forces on a FEM element are calculated depending on the composition (triangle or square) at three or four places.

5. ## Displaying Normal and Shear Stresses

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In RFEM version 5.04.xx, there is a new feature of a sophisticated graphical display of normal and shear stresses on members. It is only available for the licensed RF‑STEEL add‑on module.

6. ## Modification of Limit Stresses

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User-defined limit stresses can be determined for each thickness range. To do this, click the [Edit Material] button. In the ‘Edit Material’ dialog box, you can then define the limit stresses according to yield strength or by selecting the check box ‘User-defined, independent definition of limit stresses’.

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